Pakistan is an agriculture country and 80% of its people form the rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Their main profession is cultivation اِصلاح and ploughing. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan. Our villages badly lack in civic amenities. There is no proper system of drainage. The drinking water and electricity are not available in a large number of our villages. There are no hospitals, schools, post offices and markets in most of the villages making the life difficult and unhygienic. The village population, due to the difficult living environs in the villages, keeps on migrating to urban areas where better facilities of social life and brighter chances of earning sustenance are available. However, the Government is very much alive to the problems of rural areas. The Government is making sincere endeavours to improve the conditions of rural areas. Modern facilities of health and communication are being provided in the rural areas. Roads, dispensaries, schools, post offices and shopping centres have been provided at Government level. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages.
Urban areas in Pakistan completely differ from rural areas in the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities آسائشیں of life. The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Two cities have a dominating position - Karachi and Lahore. Since the 1960s, government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry, which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the cheapest form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate, and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. Inadequate urban transport is also a major problem. The urban areas, unlike rural areas, are well-planned and well-built with modern residential colonies. The big cities, which form the portion of our urban areas, are the centres of high modern education. A large number of prestigious educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. The urban areas have become the centre of social activity because of their multifarious aspects of social life. The industrial progress and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing.
Differences between Rural and Urban Way of Life
The rural and urban life differs in a number of ways. For an agricultural country like Pakistan, it is essential to understand how and why life in rural and urban areas differs.
Villages and towns differ in function. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal keeping, lumbering کٹی ہوئی لکڑیوں کی تجارت, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary تیسرے درجے کا activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical treatment and other activities. However, these two sets of activities are not exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Shops, transportation services, educational and medical facilities are found in rural areas, too. Similarly, there are vegetable fields within Karachi, Lahore and other major cities. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. As a consequence, the line of distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine.
Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of villages and towns. According to them, close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive feature of rural life. The inhabitants of a village, for example, usually know each other personally. In urban areas, on the other hand, relationships tend to be impersonal; urban areas are so highly populated that most people do not even know who their neighbours are. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi. However, even in places like Karachi, there are pockets in the city where people who belong to the same community or village live. In such areas people know each other and have closer contact with their neighbours. In small towns, which are in reality overgrown villages, most people known one another as well. It is also argued that while village life is traditional, urban life is rational. This is not entirely the case in Pakistan. Most of the urban population in Pakistan has a strong rural background. Although the use of urban facilities changes their way of living, it does not change their way of thinking much. In Pakistan, the lifestyles of the rich and poor differ far more than the lifestyles of city and village dwellers. The objective application of lifestyle as a factor for distinguishing between villages and towns is therefore difficult.
Another factor used to distinguish between villages and towns is population. Although this criterion is applied in many countries, there is no agreement on size. In Canada, for example, a settlement with a population of more than 1,000 is considered urban, in Japan more than 30,000 and in Pakistan, 5,000. In Pakistan, a settlement can also call itself a town if it has a two committee or cantonment that controls electricity, the water supply and drainage. For example, Ziarat in Balochistan had a population of 619 in 1998, but it was still classified as a town because it had these amenities. However, there are only ten towns with populations of less than 5,000 out of a total 478 urban centres in Pakistan.
Read more: Chapter 9 - Pakistani Culture and Society http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/b-com-part-1-pakistan-studies-notes/27009.htm#ixzz3WdvMHHjk
What are the characteristics of rural and urban communities? rural community is a country community
urban community is a city community
some characteristics of a rural community are; animals, farm, grass some characteristics of a urban community are; cars, buildings, buisnesses etc. a rural community also mostly has less then 1,000 people and a urban community generally has more then 1,000 people Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal keeping, lumbering کٹی ہوئی لکڑیوں کی تجارت, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary تیسرے درجے کا activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical treatment and other activities
Rural Society (Pre-industrial Society)
Urban Society (Industrial Society)
Life in the society was very simple and reflected in the way of living, dressing, food habits, shelter and manners etc. Life in the city is not simple but very complex and complicated. 2.
The people in the society had homogeneity and thus enjoyed more or less the same social status. The people in the city belong to different castes, creeds, religions and cultures, thus do not enjoy the same social status. 3.
In the rural society there was very little scope for occupational mobility. In cities there are many occupations, so occupational mobility is as well as frequent. 4.
Here the family played a very significant and predominant role. Its hold was very strong. In the cities hold of families is not strong, and many functions which the families used to perform have been taken away by other institutions and associations. 5.
In villages there is no fast change and as such no necessity for social adaptability. In the cities there must be fast mobility and adaptability to suit ever changing fast life. 6.
In the rural society culture was very deep-rooted. Everyone loved culture and cultural heritage above everything else. In the cities it is different to find pure culture.
In a rural society there is no division of labour.
In an urban community there is always division of labour and specialisation in job allotment. 8.
Rural society did not give due and proper respect to the womenfolk. In urban communities women enjoys comparatively high social status. 9.
In this society people loved nature and natural bounties. They were religious minded and afraid of gods and goddesses. In cities, people have no time to stand and gaze at the nature. They are not religious minded but more materialistic. 10.
There were very few chances of providing employment and incentives to the unemployed by the society. The cities provide both incentive and employment to the people and thus frustrated villages find solace in the cities which respects ability and judges their worth. Related Articles: