Characteristics of social institutions 1. They are resistant to change. Patterns of social behavior become institutionalized when they are reinforced by custom and tradition 2. They are interdependent. A societies institutions uphold similar values and norms to reflect compatible goals and priorities 3. They change together. Because institutions are interdependent a change in one will bring change Ina another 4. They are the site of social problems. For example unemployment is a problem of the economy; marital breakdown is a problem of the family; high crime rate is a problem of political and legal organizations Settlement and demography
-Population size is always connected to the environment 5 social organizations Band - 25-50+
The basic social group as humans. A basic social unit associated with hunters and gathers era. Most members are related by kinship, or marriage. Or fictis Kin. (cousins, or ppl calling people there child alrigjt not blood related) they are nomadic and a foragers. They are also higoy nomadic. They are essentially small clusters that live with a piece of land and they tend to move around according to where the resources are on the land. They can't remain in one area to long because the deplete the resources in that area. They are very mobile. They are usually found in environments where it is difficult to grow food. They have temporary camps and they move around by necessity. Each group is autonomous. Women have a high social worth. They do the second half of food collection cooking etc. Political power is held by the group. Someone of prestige may be older or a good hunter or story teller, they must have a quality that makes them stand out in the group bc of the special skill or quality they have. The group makes all political decisions not one person. They lack formal laws. They have an understand among all group members that you behave in a particular way so that everyone can survive. All laws are implied. When there are conflicts disputes are settled with mediations and negotiations. There is no fighting because everyone is needed. If an agreement can't be made the person leaves the band and joins another band. This keeps the group growing and stable. All men make there own arrows and they share them, so that when hunting no one can ever claim achievements in hunting because you may have used someone else's arrow. They have arranged marriages. They are egalitarian no one has more worth than anyone else. No one owns anything, all thins are owned by the group. Life is characterized by sharing and reciprocity. There are no formal laws.
Tribe - 100-1000+
Clusters of bands that come together and are linked by ( all bands come together) for a specific reason ie resources or warfare purposes. They have semi seditary camps they have essential 3 main areas whee they live and they rotate throughout the year. (every 3/4 months) They plant small scale farming/gardens. Small patches of land where they plant peanuts, bananas, pineapples and before they leave a camp they replay the garden and then move to another camp. So that things are continually replenished. They are egalitarian. No status among people. There are marital arrangements. Women sustain the group. Women have a lot of power and sometimes they can be leaders within a tribe.
Chiefdom - 5000-20,000+ Tribes that come together. For warfare and or economic sufficiency. They emulate modern based society. They are usually related by blood. They usually share a language, cultural customs, marriages or something else. They chose a leader when they come together and they decide which leader will be the leader of the entire chiefdom. Leaders can be make or female. They pick the person who is best politically and more wisdom. It's easy to organize for warfare purposes. They are highly unstable . And there are always other people vying for power. This is common in he middle east. Chiefdoms vary in size from 5000-20,000+. They are sedentary societies because of there size. The socierty resemble a triangle. Top chiefly class, managerial class/nobles (t hand to the chiefly class) - lower class/ laborers/commoners . each level holds different values of prestige and power. a chiefs main responsibility is to make political decisions for the group. He does that by promising political protection. And that other tribe members will be protected in any warfare. They are to also create a military that will protect the group. The chiefdom provides something that they can't provide on their own. In order to create the military class he must collect tributes/taxes. They had incentives for military recruiting. They manage the acquisition and distribution of food and other resources for the group. The lower class produces things canoes, corn, blankets, utensil etc. all labor is specified, there are groups of people producing different types of products. This way everyone has the same things and the society remains stable. They have an allegiance to the chiefdom because he is providing for your family. Chiefdom are hereditary. Once you ate in a chiefdom class you stay there. They are egalitarian. The position stays with the family, whoever is the oldest child, will take over. The only way to get a new chief is warfare against the current chief. chiefdom forbade marriages between lower and middle class
State - 20,000-100,000+
Chiefdom that have been around long enough to become formalized into a larger political unit. A chiefdom That has grown. Everyone is taxed. The money goes towards state funded activities. There are towns within the state. In state society there is intense agriculture. To solidify there positions as chiefs, chiefdom forbade marriages between lower and middle class. Everyone must marry within there own class. No arranged marriages. Only in e monarchal level. They tens to have a core town then smaller cities. The monarchy rules the state and you are a subject. Unmistakable have formalized legislative, and judicial institutions that work to keep society in order. Everyone pays taxes. Taxes pay for armies and public works projects
Nation - 100,000,000+ States become nations around the 19th century. Through the industrial revolution. Now we have factories producing goods as opposed to individuals. Then the towns become cities. They was an exploring of population and product. The ruby banks society (in all or kin book) we exchange out labor for pay. And then you purchase what you need with that money. Huge amounts of people who are no longer related by blood. There is a formalized system f taxation.
Political power allowed the ruling family to shape and past laws that benefited them first and the society second. States were not industrial industries. In the 18th century agricultural based states became industrial nations. States political system is not efficient once the population reaches the 100 millions. So people become disgruntle because they are Wong unfairly taxes and are not protected and then people become rebellious. There was a lot of revolution in the 18/19 century that became to tople the states. Once these fall we have a democractic political entity that vote in leaders that they feel will benefit them.
The industrial revolution increased the available goods and revives as created a nation that was run by a free market system. the society is now based on a market economy. It begins to entrench social classes. Nation societies are large sedentary. They divide people into social classes. Populations are ranked according to wealth and status. Those that have the lost power have the chance to influence the political decisions of the country.
They are industrial and produce massive amounts of foods and good due to machines. They are capitalistic ad operate once key economy. Has to have a common history, and culture. Governments run on taxes collected by the population.
Next class Wednesday. Class on 4/4 books
Nisa - band
Ruby - nation
These are not 100% they are approximations. Cultural institutions -Reflect the cultural ideals of a society
-regulate sexual and reproductive behaviors
Who is considered an appropriate marriage partner
What type of union a couple can enter
What constitutes a legitimate marriage
Whether divorce or separation is acceptable
What is considered normal or aberrant sexual behavior
How family and kinship is determined -members of a society understand marriage to he a type of social relationship that outlines standards for appropriate behavior relating to social interaction, sexual intimacy, and procreation. Martiahe creates a structure to meet our needs. Sexual and Social. Marriage A
Socially approved sexual and economic union that includes reciprocal rights and obligations Marriage is a cultural universal Systems under the lubricant marital system. *Arranged *Romantic- marital partners establish an emotion bond before the wedding ceremony. The bond develops suing process of dating , courtship and engagements Romantic marriage is western and based on Christianity. It can be between heterosexual or same sex partners To reduce extra rial affairs, illigitamet children as divorce the church began to promote low based marriages.
They felt that love needed to occur on a marriage to have a stable marriage that lasted long. *Monogamous
-CHARACTERISTICS OF MARRIAGE- Romantic marries are quite the fallacy.
Preceded by period in which live as emotional bondage develops though dating, courtship and engagement
-Dating phase- determines the couples attraction and compatibility- courtship phase- couples know each other/develop intimacy -Engagement phase - couple commits to marriage -Based on serial monogamy. People are expected to marry only one individual at a time, then divorce if they wish to marry again. -Romantic marriages can include living together before marriage, cohabitation instead of marriage, having children before marriage, and ethnic and or same sex diversity in mate selection. Romantic marriages are very broad. Pros -You marry for love
-More time to get to know your spouse
-Reinforces independence and personal freedom
-Can hold yourself personally responsible for choice Cons -Marriages may not last long
-Family may disagree with marriage
-Individual may choose spouse based on wrong criteria
-Can have several long term relationships/breakups before finding the one
-May offend family by choosing a non traditional partner or marriage Arranged marriages A marriage arranged by someone other than the person getting married, curtailing or avoiding the process of romantic courtship -common in Africa, Asia and in the middle east -Deeply rooted in monarchies and aristocracy around the would -parents usually arrange marriage and choose partners They feel will be a good match for their child and family Dowry and bride price are re systems that negotiate and legitimize a marriage Dowry - a martial exchange in which the wife's family provides gifts/money to the husbands family at the time of the marriage. Dowry can be in the form of money, property, gold, jewels, animals, land. Reasons for dowry:
Establishes the wife's contribution to re formation of the new household -Can be the way for the woman to receive her inheritance
-Ensures that her living standard is not reduced
-Guarantees that a woman is picked/arranged in marriage
-A way for a woman ad her family to move up the social ladder. Most common In agricultural societies o Europe, Asia, middle-east, Africa china, India india Kitchen fires - husbands family set a fire and burned wife horrible do that the marriage and be annulled Bride wealth (aka bride price)
A customary gift before the marriage from the grooms family to the brides family. Bride wealth (price) can be a symbolically important item such as cattle, bird feathers, cocoa bens, cotton cloth, etc depending jn the society. Reasons for bride Wealth. A way for the grooms family to compensate the brides family for their economic loss. Wealth labor, and chid bearing capacities Practices is patrilenial societies that combine agriculture pstoealism an Characteristics of arranged marriage -arranged marriages are the norm around the world. They are practiced more often than romantic marraiges
-in cultures where dating is not the norm arranged marriages ring people together who may not otherwise meet A bride and groom may meet for the first time in their wedding day As societies become more industrialized arranged marriages will become less popular. But even where romantic marriage is fashionable, young adults view arranged marriages as an option they can fall back on if they don't find there own spouse. Love and emotional bonding occurs After the marriage ceremony. Pros Spouse selection based on wisdom of elders
Upholds cultural norms of group
Strengthens the relationship between two families
May create higher social status for one of the families
Individual may focus on other pursuits educator career etc Grow to love each other and stay in marriage Cons
May be marrying a stranger or disagree with families choice
Family may chose spouse for selfish reasons
No dating. Yiu don't know what to expect for the partner
No learning what yiu personally want from a partner. Marriage system Rules Monogamy (serial)
Marriage to one spouse at a time RULES Endogamy- marriage within ones cultural, ethnic, or religious group
Exogamy - marriage outside of one cultural, ethnic or religious group Polygamy
Marriage to more than one spouse simultaneously Polygyny - marriage of a man to more than one woman. (usually two or mor sisters aka sororal polygyny In African societies the wives have lovers on the side. Polyandry
Marriage of a woman to one or more men.
(usually two or more brother aka levirate or fraternal polyandry) the second husband is usually a fall back husband. Polyandry is still practiced on indigenous societies , Tibet etc. Not practiced as frequently or as often as polygyny. ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS in order to survive, societies must access recourse in their environment. Resources are items that came harnessed exploited and consumed for the benefit of humans Economic systems tell us how a society obtains Economic systems are always tied into political systems z The most common resources are natural and asset resources . Resources are also called commodities. NATURAL
Plants mineral ASSETS
Social Institutions: Economic Systems Forging societies
-Hunting, gathering, and fishing natural resources.
-They are extremely healthy ad robust. They exercise constantly and eat diets low in sugar and fat.
-No animal or plant domestication
-sharing food Horticulturalism
-Plant cultivation using simple tools and techniques to modify soil and vegetation before planting crops
- humans began to domesticate plants and animals. We began to cultivate corn, rice And wheat. Humans continued to hunt and gather but also produced food on a small scale. And was used to supplement food from hunting. They usually focus on planting 1 thing. Pastoralism
-Food producing strategy based in the domestication and are of wild animal herds. Domesticate animals- cows, goats, sheep, horses, this is done for their skin and for food purposes. Also for fertilizer Agriculture
The large scale cultivation of domesticated plants.
Characterized by the continuous ad intensive use of land and labor for mass production of one or several crop foods.
Principle goods cultivated during ten Neolithic period: Wheat: in the middle east, Iran, Iraq
Corn: in mesoamerica -Mexico, Guatemala
Rice : Asia Agriculture has had positive and negative effects Positives
A stable and secure diet which creates sedentary living
Sedentary living produces larger human populations
Time and energy can be uses to creat tools ad technology
Cultural revolution: Bette standard of living through literacy, scientific invention and increased knowledge of the world. Negative
Himans work longer and harder to cultivate crops and maintain livestock
Animal farming and human populations spread disease.
Sedentary living creates atrophy (obesity and diabetes)
Environmental destruction, pollution, ad animal extinction
Creation f class based societies based in surplus wealth, favoring those weatlth and socially excluding without it Social institutions: economic systems Industrialization
Iron age 1300-600 bc Mass production of goods and services based on mechanized technology that creates a market economy. Food Producys and household items to be masse produced. This began in Europe and was transferred into the US. We replaced agriculture based society with industrial based society. This high level of productivity stimulates population growth. Because it improves living standards and expands the quality of health. A market economy produces commodities through use of large scale labor specialization. Status is achieved rather than ascribed. The family is now broken up into a nuclear unit. Which really becomes a unit of consumption. Primary groups have been pushed to the back, church's, family etc. at the forefront are government, and corporations. The influence of religion diminish. All things regarding family falls to the wayside, when replaced by ideas of being connected
A market system generates surplus wealth for capital owners, which then creates and formalizes a class society. A Commerce, through the use of market economy, is find mainly in nations who a class based society
Rely on high volume of production and commerce.
Market system based on the exploration of the people below you.
Industrialization - US Next test: in may week of of may 7th System of distribution and exchange Principles by which resources are distributed and exchanges among members of a society Principle of exchange: •Reciprocity ---> tied to foragers & tribes -The simplest The exchange between social equals who are related by kinships.
-Found mainly in egalitarian societies whose members depend on each other for survival
-Practiced by foragers, cultivators and pastoralists. Reciprocity into 3 degrees
*Generalized the exchange between closely relates people. Exchanges vary according to how close yiu are *Balanced - as social distance increase. So does the need to reciprocate in a balanced fashion. Exchange items must be equal. This is because you are not related to the people you are trading with. The more distance between ppl te more formal the relationship. *Negative- social distance is the greatest. An equal negative reciprocation is necessary to avoid conflict and maintain peace between parties. Reciprocity must be balanced and has a negative connotation. If someone is killed in one tribe, someone must be killed in another tribe. •Redistribution---> tied to chiefdoms
Goods and services move from one lock area of production to a centralized office for redistribution. The center may be regional collection point or storehouse. Products move through heirarchay of offices who manage and organize the resource for redistribution. The goods or services are them redistributed and moved back down from the central office to areas if the society that need it most. (Like taxes being used of the good of the ppl) •Market principle---> tied to states and nations Market system - ppl have money to purchase items. Goods and services are exchanged at the marketplace.
Exchange rates are governed by an arbitrary money standard. Price is set by the law of supply and demand.
The market principle operates in large scale modern industrial societies where wealth, power and prestige create social stratification. The main feature is that it operates at a very large scale and goods and services are sold by supply and demand.
Depending on the size of the society you'll have a redistribution or a market principle. Political institution s determines who constitutes that governing body. Some political systems are run by a single leader and other by groups or and elected leader. They can be formal, when they ate they ate formally structured with regulations passed by legislative bodies or they can be informal like bands or tribes and they abide by informal I sanctioned laws/ customs/ traditions. Cross cousin marriage are outliers in the society. Governments run on a spectrum that runs from left to right. Totalitarian -->Communistic country political systems are the societies
They enforce societies ideas and values.
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