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Characteristics and Qualities

By dmarihurtado Oct 10, 2014 1074 Words


Characteristics and Qualities

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PSY/211

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Characteristics and Qualities
Scientists define personality as a combination of characteristics and qualities that form within an individual. This means the way we interact and behave with ourselves or socially and how one emotionally reacts to certain concepts. There are four certain perspectives of personality that will be discussed and how three of these theories are compared. Also, if taking part in personality assessments can have a negative, positive or have both end results. A personality theory, or perspective, is an attempt to describe and illustrate how people are the same, different or what makes an individual particular and rare. These theories are Psychoanalytic Perspective, Humanistic Perspective, Social cognitive Perspective and Trait Perspective. Each of these is thought to describe one's individual personality or closely connected individuals. Let us start with the Humanistic Perspective represents a positive outlook for human potential and free will. Humanistic theorists propose that human beings are naturally good people. As talked about in the past week, great explanation to this would be Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The needs are ascending in order of importance, but one level cannot be achieved before the preceding level. The needs include psychological, safety, belonging, esteem and finally self-actualization. Healthy personalities and creativity determine personalities. Carl Rogers also had an impact on humanistic theories of self-concept. Self-concept is the set of beliefs you have of yourself, including your nature and typical behavior. He desired to promote the positive views of self-concepts. Socio-cognitive theory highlights the social origins of thoughts and actions but also strains on the cognitive process and the capacity of self - regulation. Banduras researched presented that we observe and imitate the behaviors of others. We also observe the consequences, the rules and standards in which people regulate their behavior. Banduras explains Reciprocal Dermanis, which is human behavior and personality being influenced by interaction of behavioral, cognitive and environmental factors. Each factor is influenced by each other. “Thus, in Bandura’s view, our environment influences our thoughts and actions, our thoughts influence our actions and the environments we choose, our actions influence our thoughts and the environments we choose, and so on in a circular fashion.” (Hockenbury, 2014, Chapter 10). He also explains Self- Efficacy where you are instinctively aware of your capabilities and meeting demands under certain situations. Personality trait theorists view a person as having a combination of unique personality characteristics or attributes called traits. A trait theory describes, identifies and measures and individuals difference in behavioral predisposition. People also possess traits in different degrees such as extremely, somewhat and not at all. The Psychoanalytic theory, this points out the unconscious developments and the influence of early childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud developed this theory. Freud described the conscious mind, the things that we are aware of to the unconscious mind, the preconscious which is information you are currently not aware of, but can easily bring to conscious awareness and the unconscious. He compared the human mind to an iceberg, and the conscious, preconscious mind was the tip and mid of the iceberg with the unconscious mind the bottom underwater. According to Freud, each person possesses a certain level of psychoanalytical energy that consists of three basic structures. The three personality developments are the ID, the Ego and the Superego. The ID is the unconscious mental force that has the irrational, illogical and impulsive dimension of the mind and is most present at birth. Ego is the partly conscious section of the mind formed from part of the ID and represents the organization, rational and planning dimension of personality. The Ego operates using the "reality principle" being the mediator to the ID and the Superego operating in both the conscious and unconscious mind. Finally, the Super Ego is developed during early childhood and asses or examines what is acceptable and what is not. The Super Ego is responsible for your values and morals, if what you do isn't thought of to be acceptable than the super-ego can be hurt, and guilt or shame is felt. There is also the Ego defense mechanism, where we often use to try and rationalize or buy more time to a better solution to situations we are troubled with. There are two major tests used to assess personality: projective tests and self-report inventories. Projective testing is comprised of presenting a subject inkblots or scenes to determine what they see when they look at the image before them. The person's response is thought to be an unconscious projection of their thoughts, motive, conflicts, or psychological desires. The Rorschach test is a commonly used method for projective testing. Responses given by the subject are scored, and the results analyzed. Another form of projective testing is the Thematic Apperception Test. Like the Rorschach test, the subject would look at the scene, but instead of describing or naming what they see, the person would make up a story about the scene. Projective testing is widely used in counseling or therapy setting and is considered reliable for providing qualitative information about a person's psychological functioning. Self- Report Inventories take a paper and pencil approach to personality assessment. A subject answers specific questions or rates themselves on various dimensions of behavior and psychological functioning. These tests or surveys are often called objective personality tests. The most widely used assessment is called the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Two other commonly used tests are the California Psychological Inventory and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. The greatest strengths of using a self-report inventory to assess personality are the standardization and their established norms. The tests are objectively scored, and the results compared to norms established by previous research. When a health professional is assessing a person or subject's personality, some issues need to be considered. While these tests can provide some insight into someone's psychological makeup, factors such as behavioral observations, family background, and interviews with co-workers, friends, and family should be taken into consideration. The personality assessment is not a strong enough tool to be used on its own. With projective testing, a professional might want to consider the objectiveness of the tester and the environment in which they are testing. In a self-inventory test, one needs to consider that the subject might not be truthful when they answer. References

Hockenbury, D.H. (2014). Discovering Psychology (6th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database

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