In Belgian Brussels (1890)
January 28, 1980 – Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium. 2 reasons that impelled Rizal to leave Paris
* The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition * The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writings of his second novel El Filibusterismo. M.H. del Pilar and Valentin Ventura
* Were of the belief that he left because he was running away from a girl just as he left London. * When Rizal told them the real reason, Ventura generously invited him to live with him in Paris without paying rent. * Rizal could not accept Ventura’s invitation, for he had a high sense of dignity and would not accept charity from any man. Life in Brussels
* Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. * They lived in 38 Rue Philippe Champagne which was run by 2 Jaceby sisters (Suzanne and Marie). * When Albert left the city, he was replaced by Jose Alejandro, an engineering student. * In Brussels, Rizal was busy writing his second novel which was continuation of the Noli. * Aside from writing its chapters, he wrote articles for La Solidaridad and letters to his family and friends. * Being a physician, he spent his part time in medical clinic. * Recreational Activities:
* Gymnastics at the gymnasium
* Target practice
* Fencing at the armory
Articles Published in La Solidaridad
* “ A La Defensa” (To la Defensa)
* “La Verdad Para Todos” (The Truth For All)
* “Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo,”
* “Una Profanacion” ( A Profanation)
* “Verdades Nuevas” (New Truths)
* “Diferencias” (Differences)
* “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences)
* “Llanto y Risas” (Tears and Laughter)
* “Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude)
New Orthography of Tagalog Language
* Rizal was first to advocate the Filipinization of the orthography. -K - - > C O - - >W
* SALACOT - - > SALAKOT (Head Gear) * ARAO - - >ARAW
* It was published in La Solidaridad
* He gave the credit to Dr. Trinidad H. Prado de Tavera, author of Sanskrit in Tagalog Language.
Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipino for Gambling
* Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipino in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much, they urged him to do something about it. * On May 28, 1890, Rizal wrote to M.H. del Pilar to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their Fatherland’s Freedom. * The gambling Filipinos were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing. * They called him “Papa” (Pope) instead of “Pepe” Bad New from Home
* The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worse.
* The Dominican hacienda continually raised the land rents until Rizal’s father refused to pay his rent. * The Dominican Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba. * The tenants and the Rizal family were persecuted.
* Paciano, Antonio Lopez, and Silvestre Ubaldo were deported to Mindoro. * Manuel T. Hidalgo was banished for a second time to Bohol. * This bad news made Jose depressed.
Presentiment of Death
* Rizal had bad dreams during the nights in Brussels because he was always thinking of his unhappy family in Calamba. * He feared that he would not live long.
* He was not afraid to die, but he wanted to finish his second novel before he went to his grave. Preparation to Go Home
* Rizal planned to go home; he could not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives and friends are persecuted in the Philippines. * All his friends including Blumentritt, Jose Ma. Basa and Ponce were horrified by Rizal’s plan to return to the Philippines. They warned him of danger awaited that him at home. Decision to Go to Madrid
* A letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila, but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain, hence a lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid. * Rizal wrote a letter to M.H. del Pilar for his services as lawyer and informed him that he was going to Madrid, in order to supervise the handling of the case. “To My Muse”
* During those sad days in Brussels he wrote his pathetic poem. * To My Muse “A Mi….”
* This poem is lacks the exquisiteness
Romance with Petite Jacoby
* Two things that cheered Rizal in preparation in Madrid: * The summertime festival of Belgium which was celebrated in carnival style. * His romance with Petite Jacoby, the pretty niece of his landladies. * Rizal was charming and dignified a gentleman that Petite was attracted to him. * He was lonely in strange country and Leonor Rivera was so far away. Being a normal young man, he found certain bliss in the company of a pretty Belgian girl. * Petite cried when he left for Madrid, stopping for a few days in Paris.