Topics: Writing, Working memory, Language Pages: 17 (3688 words) Published: November 26, 2014


1.1Background of the Problem

English is widely used in the world and has become the international language for a lot of people. The function of language itself is for communication. By having good communication, people will be able to have connection to each other wherever they come from. Almost all of our activities in our daily life need a communication in order to share our ideas, feelings to other people. The way to communicate our ideas is by making language. According to Discourse by Guy Cook (1989: 26), language can be separated by some functions; emotive function, directive function, phatic function, poetic function, referential function/carrying information, metalinguistic function and contextual function. Cook explains the emotive function as the inner states and emotions of the addresser. The words like ‘Fantastic’, ‘Ugh!’, ‘Oh no!’ represent what feeling the addresser has. The second is the directive function which is sought to affect the behavior of the addressee. Directive means to direct someone or addressee to do something. ‘Please help me’, ‘Shut up!’, ‘I’m warning you!’ are some examples of directive functions which we use in our daily live. The third is the phatic function which is used for opening such a conversation and for practical ones. ‘Hello’, ‘Lovely weather, isn’t it?’, ‘Do you come here often?’ are some expressions we sometimes use to open a conversation with new people. ‘Are you still there?’, Can you see the blackboard from the back of the room?’, Can you read my writing?’ are the examples for the practical ones where people try to make communication to others through the environment around them all. The forth is the poetic functions which the particular form chosen is the essence of the message, such as BEANZ MEANZ HEINZ which is an interesting advertising slogan means if you buy beans, you will naturally buy Heinz. The fifth function is the referential function which means carrying information. We can call it as the informative function. It informs you what something works on. The sixth is the metalinguistic function which is focusing attention to clarify something. The expressions you meet such as, ‘What does this word here mean?’, ‘This bone is known as the “femur”’, ‘“Will” and “shall” mean the same thing nowadays’ represent how we need clarification and how we focus on something. The last is contextual function which means creating a particular kind of communication, such as ‘Right, let’s play a game’, ‘it’s just a small problem.’ Those functions are really used by people to have communication with each other. However, there is a problem if people don’t have the same language to state their ideas. As a result, they will not be able to get someone’s idea clearly and fast and sometimes it does need some time to understand someone’s idea by their gestures. That is why learning one of the international languages is very important in order to make communication with other people, especially from another country, is possible. In Indonesia, activities learning English have been decreasing. We can see from the result of Kurikulum 2013 which shows that students in the elementary school are not given any English lessons. By doing this decision, there will be generations who are very hard trying to communicate to other people from other countries. Therefore, by facing this truth, learning English is really needed for us to have better and broader mind of the world. Truthfully, learning a language for adults is quite complex. There are many things we should consider, such as the vocabulary, the pronunciation, and the grammar. In English, we also learn the language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. English is definitely used by a lot of people around the world. People who learn English must also be able to master those four skills and the components, even the degree of their capability is not the same. The skills and the components of...

References: 1. Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2003). Methodology in language
2. Ager, S. (Ed.). (n.d.). What is writing? Retrieved November 1, 2014, from
5. Kerstetter, Bob. (n.d.) What is Writing?. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from
Research and Writing Web site: writing/what-is-writing-a-definition.html
7. Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
9. What is a descriptive text? (2004, January 5). Retrieved November 2, 2014, from www-
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Chapter I introduction kamantigue
  • Essay on Chapter I
  • Chapter I Essay
  • Essay about Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 Notes
  • introduction Essay
  • Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Essay
  • Essay about introduction to new testament I reflect
  • Chapter 28 Adult Health I Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free