Thesis: Agriculture allowed for far greater population than did any previous way of life, which led to greater individuality, oppression, and inequality.
I. Trace the origins of the first civilizations.
A. Civilization arose in six major locations scattered around the world.
1. One of the earliest civilizations emerged in Sumer (in southern Mesopotamia) between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e.
2. Norte Chico (central coastal Peru), emerged between 3000 and 1800 b.c.e.
3. Indus Valley civilization arose between 3000 and 2000 b.c.e. along with Nile Valley civilization
4. Around 2200 b.c.e., a First Civilization took shape in China
5. The Olmec produced a First Civilization much later (around 1200 b.c.e.) on coast of Gulf of Mexico
II. Describe how inequality took place in civilizations.
A. As the first civilizations took shape, inequality and hierarchy soon came to be regarded as normal and natural.
1. Hierarchies of class: vast inequalities in wealth, status, and power: upper classes, free commoners, and slaves were at the bottom.
2. Hierarchies of gender: favored male labor over female, men were less important in the household, women roles in reproduction
• Patriarchy- social system for male dominance
III. Explain the importance of states.
A. The rising of states was a process of centralization that took place in the first civilization that led to the growing out of greater complexity of urban life.
1. States fulfilled a variety of roles: organizing irrigation systems, adjudicating conflicts, and defense
2. Writing provided support for the state and sustained the First Civilizations by: defining elite status, propaganda, accurate accounts and complex calendars, and regulations and laws
IV. Compare the similarities and differences of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
A. Both had similarities and differences in environment and culture, cities and states, and interaction and