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chapter 9 world history AP notes

By lululuva Oct 20, 2013 4003 Words
Chapter 9
P192-211

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Introduction:
BIG IDEASDETAILS
One: Two major Christian civilizations took shape- the orthodox Christian Byzantine & Catholicism in Central and West Europe- yet the remained mostly different

Two: Expansion into areas never controlled beforeBoth new civilizations were impacted by Islam oThey had Different principles
Byzantine places a higher stress on politics, economy, and cultural life (from about 500-1459 CE) They had land from the Northern Middle East, the Eastern Mediterranean & sometimes land in the Balkans •Their government was basically a continuation of the eastern Roman empire oThey wanted to keep the Roman Legacy alive as well as contribute many of their own legacies- one of these being Constantinople, one of the greatest cities in the world at this time. •Started to spread into the Balkans and western Russia (lands that were never previously controlled) •Rise of Russia was assisted by the Byzantines (the most important “offspring”) oLed to Russia being influenced by the Byzantines

There were also some similarities between the to Christian civilizations oThey both spread to the north (because of missionary appeal of the religion) oBoth monotheistic
oTheir northern lands both had problems creating a political definition oThey both traded with the major centers of world commerce
oBoth used a lot of Greco-Roman styles
oWere somewhat hostile towards each other
oThey both had little mutual contact with each other until the very end of the period •Eastern Europe was more advanced with regards to political sophistication, cultural range, and economic vitality

Overall Summary (ablongman)- “In addition to the great civilizations of Asia and North Africa forming during the postclassical period, two related major civilizations formed in Europe. The Byzantine Empire, in western Asia and southeastern Europe, expanded into eastern Europe. The other was defined by the influence of Catholicism in western and central Europe. The Byzantine Empire, with territory in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean, maintained very high levels of political, economic, and cultural life between 500 and 1450 C.E. The empire continued many Roman patterns and spread its Orthodox Christian civilization through most of eastern Europe, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. Catholic Christianity, without an imperial center, spread in western Europe. Two separate civilizations emerged from the differing Christian influences”

The Byzantine Empire
“The Byzantine Empire unfolded initially as part of the greater Roman Empire. Then, as this framework shattered with Roman decline, it took a life of its own, particularly from the reign of Emperor Justinian onward. It centered on a territory different from and smaller than the eastern Mediterranean as Rome had defined it. This was the result of new pressures, particularly the surge of Islam throughout North Africa and the bulk of the Middle East. Despite many attacks, the empire flourished until the 11th century.”

Origins of the Empire:
You can think of the beginning of the empire as the 4th century CE oThis was when the Romans set up their western capitol of Constantinople •This one city became a strong and thriving center of an empire with a falling imperial structure •Emperor Constantine started to build many elaborate buildings, some of which were Christian churches oBuild his city off of the small town of Byzantium

oEastern emperors would rule from this new city
Even before the fall of western Rome
Warded off intruders (including the Huns)
Had a solid tax base because of the peasant agriculture of the eastern Mediterranean •Emperor Justinian (in the 6th century) changed the official language to Greek (Latin had been the court language of the eastern empire; however, it became inferior & considered barbaric) oThis Greek knowledge gave scholars of the eastern empire to read the ancient Athenian philosophical and literary classics & the Hellenistic writings freely •High levels of commerce (Had been in the eastern Mediterranean) helped the new empire •Hellenized Egyptians and Syrians started to become involved in their administration oThis was due to the fact that many of them were moving to Constantinople (& entered the expanding bureaucracy) •Byzantine empire had many foreign enemies

oGermanic tribes applied more pressure to the West
Recruited armies from the Middle East
“Complex administration around a remote emperor… increasingly defined the empire’s political style”

Overall summary (ablongman)- “Emperor Constantine in the fourth century C.E. established a capital at Constantinople. Separate emperors ruled from it even before Rome fell. Although Latin served for a time as the court language, Greek became the official tongue after the sixth century. The empire benefited from the high level of civilization in the former Hellenistic world and from the region's prosperous commerce. It held off barbarian invaders and developed a trained civilian bureaucracy.”

Justinian’s Achievements:

Constantly threatened by invasion
oUsing local military bases & upper class Greek generals Eastern emperors were able to defend themselves from the Sasnanin empire in Persia & from the Germanic invaders •In 533 CE emperor Justinian tried to reconquer western territory so that they could build a legacy like that of Rome’s. He had many great accomplishments during his reign oJustinian was influenced greatly by others, easily persuaded •His wife influenced many of his decisions (Theodora)

Theodora wanted power
She pushed Justinian towards the plans for expansion
oBuilding projects & extending later Roman architecture
The Hagia Sophia- Incredible church & symbol of Christianity with a dome larger than any others at that time oCodification of Roman law- basically summed up and reconciled earlier edicts and decisions •Reduced confusion

United and organized the new empire
Helped to spread many money legal ideas through various parts of Europe oMilitary Conquests of Justinian
With Belisarius he gained land in both north Africa and Italy •Wanted north Africa to supply the Mediterranean with gain again & wanted Italy to symbolize the past Roman imperial glory •Couldn’t hold Rome

oBecause of the Germans
oStill made their temporary capitol of Ravenna
Artistic center, had some of the most beautiful Christian mosaics in the world •Lost north Africa soon after
Overall, they hurt his empire.
They were soon facing Persian attacks & new Slavic attacks •Justinian created a defense & pushed the Persians back, but Middle eastern land was lost •Taxes of war were high
oThese taxes led to his death in 565 CE

Overall summary (ablongman) – “In the sixth century, Justinian, with a secure base in the east, attempted to reconquer Western territory but without lasting success. The military efforts weakened the empire as Slavs and Persians attacked frontiers, and they also created serious financial pressures. Justinian rebuilt Constantinople in classical style; among the architectural achievements was the huge church of Hagia Sophia. His codification of Roman law reduced legal confusion in the empire. The code later spread Roman legal concepts throughout Europe.”

Arab Pressure and the Empires Defenses:

Successors were focused on defending the eastern empire •Persian led to the rapid reconversion to Christianity in the Middle East oThe Byzantine empire that came out of this was in the southern Balkans and the western and central portions of modern Turkey •Although not physically the size of Rome, they did have a strong Hellenistic culture with a blend of Christianity oAlso managed to advance Roman engineering, military tactics, and law oStrong enough to withstand the Arabs in the 7th century

They did lose a great deal, however
Arabs challenged their naval supremacy
Constantly attacking Constantinople
Took the Byzantines remaining provinces
Arab cultural and commercial influence affected the normal patterns of life in Constantinople •A huge seize in 717-718 CE was stopped thanks to a new weapon called Greek fire •Arab threat never completely removed

These wars brought even more economic struggle
Taxation
oPosition of farmers weakened as a result
oMore aristocratic states
oMore power for aristocratic generals
oFree rural population that had paid a majority of the taxes became much more dependent •Started to emphasize the army and the navy more
After they had gotten over a majority of the problems that the Arabs had posed, they had a pattern of both weak and strong emperors oArab pressures continued through this time
Conquest of Crete in the 9th century and harassed the Byzantine shipping for several countries •Some Slavik kingdoms (especially Bulgaria) sometimes pressed the Byzantine territory that was in the Balkans oSometimes, however, Byzantines had control of the Bulgarian kingdom (through military success and some marriage alliances •Byzantine pressure eroded the kingdom

In the 11th century Basil II bribed Bulgarian nobles & generals •Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in 1014 (15,000 captives) •Bulgaria became a part of the empire & merged with many Greek leading families •It is important to recognize that although the Byzantines was experiencing many problems, they still had a strong imperial core, and they had the ability to withstand many strong enemies oBy the end of the 10th century some people believe that the Byzantine monarch could have been the most powerful monarch on earth

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Justinian's successors concentrated on the defense of their Eastern territories. The empire henceforth centered in the Balkans and western and central Turkey, a location blending a rich Hellenistic culture with Christianity. The revived empire withstood the seventh century advance of Arab Muslims, although important regions were lost along the eastern Mediterranean and the northern Middle Eastern heartland. The wars and the permanent Muslim threat had significant cultural and commercial influences. The free rural population, the provider of military recruits and taxes, was weakened. Aristocratic estates grew larger, and aristocratic generals became stronger. The empire's fortunes fluctuated as it resisted pressures from the Arabs and Slavic kingdoms. Bulgaria was a strong rival, but Basil II defeated and conquered it in the eleventh century. At the close of the tenth century, the Byzantine emperor may have been the strongest contemporary ruler.”

Byzantine Society and Politics:
The Byzantine political system was very similar to that of (earlier) China oEmperor appointed by god- so head of church and state
He then appointed bishops
Passed religious & secular laws
oElaborate church rituals
Meant to symbolize the ideals of an all powerful divine ruler •Contrary to this, however, they often immobilized rulers •Women were sometimes in power when they were maintaining the ceremonial power of office oEmpress Theodora

Refused to marry the imperial heir, so her sister did
She was confined to a monastery
Rebellion against the emperor led to Theodora and Zoë working together as empresses oTheodora claimed control when she was 70
She looked over for unruly nobles and limited corruption oShe was attacked because of her reliance on “menials” •Incredibly elaborate bureaucracy- were trained in Greek classics, philosophy, and science oSecular school system was a lot like the church education (for priesthood) oBureaucrats could come from any social class

Aristocrats predominated
oThe officials that were closest to the emperor were mostly eunuchs oGovernors of provinces were appointed from the center
Had to keep tabs on military authorities
oElaborate system of spies (for loyalty purposes- yet it created distrust) oThis system supported the longest single government structure of the Mediterranean! (that they had ever known a that time) •Military organization was also elaborate (Byzantine rulers adapted to the later Roman system) oRecruited troops locally

Rewarded them with land in exchange for their service
This got them many outsiders in their army
oHereditary military leaders were taking power more and more •Displaced the more traditional & better educated aristocrats •Socially & economically dependent on the control that Constantinople had over the countryside oThey controlled the food prices

oRegulated the trade
oPrices tended to be low (because of the urban lower classes) oTrade included to production of luxury items
Only China could really compete
Unlike in Islam, merchants weren’t of a very significant social class •Culturally they were centered around the secular traditions of Hellenism oHad literary & artistic creations but there wasn’t very much innovation in general oPreserved and commented on past ideas (Like the Arabs did) oAdapted domed buildings, elaborate and beautiful mosaics, icon painting •With art, blue and gold backgrounds with well (richly) dresses religious figures were meant to represent the unchanging beauty of heaven, •Led to iconoclasm – which even threatened to have a split between the church and state •State control over church remained

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Byzantine political patterns resembled the earlier Chinese system. An emperor, ordained by god and surrounded by elaborate court ritual, headed both church and state. Women occasionally held the throne. An elaborate bureaucracy supported the imperial authority. The officials, trained in Hellenistic knowledge in a secular school system, could be recruited from all social classes, although, as in China, aristocrats predominated. Provincial governors were appointed from the center, and a spy system helped to preserve loyalty. A careful military organization defended the empire. Troops were recruited locally and given land in return for service. Outsiders, especially Slavs and Armenians, accepted similar terms. Over time, hereditary military leaders developed regional power and displaced aristocrats who were better educated. The empire socially and economically depended on Constantinople's control of the countryside. The bureaucracy regulated trade and food prices. Peasants supplied the food and provided most tax revenues. The large urban class was kept satisfied by low food prices. A widespread commercial network extended into Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, western Europe, and Africa. Silk production techniques brought from China added a valuable product to the luxury items exported. Despite the busy trade, the large merchant class never developed political power. Cultural life centered on Hellenistic secular traditions and Orthodox Christianity. Little artistic creativity resulted, except in art and architecture. Domed buildings, colored mosaics, and painted icons expressed an art linked to religion.”

The Split Between East and West:
Culture and politics in addition to the economic orientation towards Asia and NE Europe helps us to understand the break that is occurring between the Eastern Christian version and the Western that was headed by the Pope (in Rome) oThe two different versions disagreed over many different topics •Resentment over the papel attempts to get involved in the iconoclastic argument •Charlemagne’s claim to be a true Roman emperor

Latin v.s. Greek rituals
The Pope being the first bishop
Religious art & icons
Whether priests can marry or not
The actual great schism occurred in 1054
oDidn’t completely split- there was still a common Christianity •Contained shared & revived classical traditions
oSplit reflected the patterns of development that the civilizations followed over the course of the postclassical time period

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Byzantine culture, political organization, and economic orientation help to explain the rift between the eastern and western versions of Christianity. Different rituals grew from Greek and Latin versions of the Bible. Emperors resisted papal attempts to interfere in religious issues. Hostility greeted the effort of the Frankish king, Charlemagne, to be recognized as Roman emperor. The final break between the two churches occurred in 1054 over arguments about the type of bread used in the mass and the celibacy of priests. Even though the two churches remained separate, they continued to share a common classical heritage.”

The Empire’s Decline:
The schism in a sense marked the beginning of the decline of the Byzantine empire oTurkish invaders pushing in
In the 11th century the Seljuk Turks seized a majority of the Asiatic provinces •By doing this they cut off the tax revinue
Cut off their food supplu
In 1071 the Byzantine emperor lost the battle of Manzikert- his larger army was destroyed and the empire could never recover •Staggered for another 4 centuries
It would never be a significant power again
When new independent Slavic states started to form in the Balkans, it was obvious that the empires power was completely gone •During the crusades Italian merchant communities gained many trading advantages oExample being Venice

oOnce crusade in 1204 turned against its goal and turned against Byzantium- they conquered Constantinople •Because of greedy Venetian merchants
In 1453 a Turkish sultan with a powerful army and artillery attacked the city oIt fell after just two months
oBy 1461 the Turks had taken a majority of the Byzantine power •Shows how far Islam has spread
Fall was very important for the future- it impacted a lot oByzantine had anchored an essential part of the Mediterranean oThey had important trading contacts
oThey had preserved & maintained the classical learning
oThey spread Christian learning (a lot more than ever before)

Overall summary (ablongman) – “A long period of decline began in the eleventh century. Muslim Turkish invaders seized almost all of the empire's Asian provinces, removing the most important sources of taxes and food. The empire never recovered from the loss of its army at Manzikert in 1071. Independent Slavic states appeared in the Balkans. An appeal for western European assistance did not help the Byzantines. Crusaders, led by Venetian merchants, sacked Constantinople in 1204. Italian cities used their navies to secure special trading privileges. A smaller empire struggled to survive for another two centuries against western Europeans, Muslims, and Slavic kingdoms. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople.”

The Spread of Civilizations in Eastern Europe:
“Missionary attempts to spread Christianity, new Byzantine conquests in the Balkans (particularly Bulgaria), and trade routed running north and south through western Russia and Ukraine created contacts with key portions of Eastern Europe. A number of regional states formed. Kievan Rus’, in a territory including present day Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia, developed some of the formative features of Russian culture and politics. Mongol invasions ended this period od early Russian history, redividing parts of Eastern Europe” •Contacts formed with Russia because of missionary activity oCyril and Methodius

Regional kingdoms
Ended by the Mongol Invasions

The East Central Borderlands:
Eastern missionaries didn’t monopolize the eastern Europe borders •Roman Catholicism (& Latin alphabet) were more common in Czech areas, most of Hungary, and Poland oThis region would be an area of conflict between the eastern and western political models oSomewhat active trade & industry

Eastern Europe received an influx of Jews
oBarred from agriculture, often resented by Christian majority, had to take commerce jobs oDid emphasize education & literacy which distinguished them from others

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Both eastern and western Christian missionaries competed in eastern Europe. Roman Catholics, and their Latin alphabet, prevailed in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. The region became a long-standing site of competition between the two influences. A series of regional monarchies—Poland, Bohemia, Lithuania—with powerful landowning aristocracies developed. Eastern Europe also received an influx of Jews from the Middle East and western Europe. They were often barred from agriculture but participated in local commerce. They maintained their own traditions and emphasized education for males.”

The Emergence of Kievan Rus’:
Russia had hesitant advances in their economy & politics •Byzantine influence was what helped Russia to form in the firs place •Early culture includes
oAnimistic beliefs, strong family tribes, oral legend, etc. •Scandinavian traders started to set up stops in Kiev
oA monarchy actually emerged
Rurik was the first monarch
Vladimir I- a Rurik descendant (980-1015)
oConverted to Christianity (for the people)
oForced the conversions
oOrthodox
oIt became the largest state in Europe
Decentralized, however
They created formal law codes

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Slavic peoples from Asia migrated into Russia and eastern Europe during the period of the Roman Empire. They mixed with and incorporated earlier populations. They possessed iron and extended agriculture in Ukraine and western Russia. Political organization centered in family tribes and villages. The Slavs followed an animist religion and had rich traditions of music and oral legends. Scandinavian traders during the sixth and seventh centuries moved into the region along its great rivers and established a rich trade between their homeland and Constantinople. Some traders won political control. A monarchy emerged at Kiev around 855 under the legendary Danish merchant, Rurik. The loosely organized state flourished until the twelfth century. Kiev became a prosperous commercial center. Contacts with the Byzantines resulted in the conversion of Vladimir I (980-1015) to Orthodox Christianity. The ruler, on the Byzantine pattern, controlled church appointments. Kiev's rulers issued a formal law code. They ruled the largest single European state.”

Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus’:
Kievan Rus’ couldn’t replace many of the incredible aspects that Byzantium had created oBureaucracy, educational system
oDid borrow a lot from them, however
Devotion to the power of a god, ceremonies, ornate churches, monogamy, almsgiving, Russian literature, art, religious art, & social structure •Farmers were usually completely free
Aristocrats had less power
oRussia did acknowledge the rest of Europe- some rulers (Yaroslav the Wise) used marriage to create ties with them •Arranged over 30 marriages with European royalty

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Kiev borrowed much from Byzantium, but it was unable to duplicate its bureaucracy or education system. Cultural, social, and economic patterns developed differently from the western European experience. Rulers favored Byzantine ceremonials and the concept of a strong central ruler. Orthodox Christian practices entered Russian culture—devotion to God's power and to saints, ornate churches, icons, and monasticism. Polygamy yielded to Christian monogamy. Almsgiving emphasized the obligation of the wealthy toward the poor. Literature focused on religious and royal events, while art was dominated by icon painting and illuminated religious manuscripts. Church architecture adapted Byzantine themes to local conditions. Peasants were free farmers, and aristocratic landlords (boyars) had less political power than similar Westerners.” Kievan Decline:

Rival princes set up regional governments
Rapid decline of Byzantium
Relied heavily on prosperity/manufacturing of southern neighbors •3. 1237-1241 Mongol Invasion
Tatars control – two centuries
oliterature languished
otrade lapsed
onorth-south commerce never returned
oleft day to day control to locals
oWhen Constantinople falls in 1453, Russia claims throne of east European leadership •“third, new Rome” was created (attempted to be created)

Overall summary (ablongman) – “Kievan decline began in the twelfth century. Rival princes established competing governments while the royal family quarreled over the succession. Asian invaders seized territory as trade diminished because of Byzantine decay. The Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century incorporated Russian lands into their territories. Mongol (Tatar) dominance further separated Russia from western European developments. Commercial contacts lapsed. Russian Orthodox Christianity survived because the tolerant Mongols did not interfere with Russian religious beliefs or daily life as long as tribute was paid. Thus when Mongol control ended in the fifteenth century, a Russian cultural and political tradition incorporating the Byzantine inheritance reemerged. The Russians claimed to be the successors to the Roman and Byzantine states, the "third Rome."”

The End of an Era in Eastern Europe:
After Turks, Mongols – Eastern Europe fell on hard times oEast and West on different trajectories
Western Europe free from outside control
West continued focus on political, economic, cultural advancement •Christianity remained
Church-state relations remained
Pride in artistic culture remained

Overall summary (ablongman) – “With the Mongol invasions, the decline of Russia, and the collapse of Byzantium, eastern Europe entered into a difficult period. Border territories, such as Poland, fell under Western influence, while the Balkans fell to the Islamic world of the Turks. Western and eastern Europe evolved separately, with the former pushing ahead in power and cross-cultural sophistication.”

Global Connections: Eastern Europe and the World:
Byzantine empire participated in interregional trade
oConstantinople- key trading city
oServed as a link in the postclassical global system
Russia was aware of both Europe and western Asia
oVladmir I’s religious choices/ why he chose this way
oPeriod of unusual isolation after Byzantium declined
oBy the 15th century they were gaining their own independence back •What kind of contacts should it make

Overall summary (ablongman) – “The Byzantine Empire was active in interregional trade; Constantinople was one of the world’s great trading cities, and the empire served as a link between northern Europe and the Mediterranean. When Byzantium declined and the Mongols conquered Russia, a period of isolation began. By the fifteenth century, Russia began to regain independence and faced decisions about how to re-engage with the West.”

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