APES Period 2
January 23rd, 2013
Chapter 8 - Community Ecology
1. The species of equilibrium model/theory of island biogeography states that there is a balance between two factor which determine the number of different species found on the land: the rate at which new species immigrate and the rate at which existing species become extinct. Native species are those that live and thrive in a particular community. Nonnative species, invasive species, and alien species are those that have evolved somewhere else and then migrate or are accidentally introduced into a community. Indicator species are those who serve as early warnings of damage or danger to a community. Keystone species help determine the types and numbers of various other species in a community. Interspecific competition is the competition for shared or scarce resources, such as space and food, between species. Resource partitioning occurs when species competing for similar, scarce resources evolve more specialized traits that allows them to use shared resources at different times, ways, or places. Predation is the term used when the members of predator species feed directly on all or part of a living organism of another species. Parasitism occurs when one species feeds on another organism by living on or in the host. Mutualism occurs when two species interact in a way that benefits both. Commensalism is a species interaction that benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other. Ecological succession is the gradual change in species composition in an area. Early successional plant species grow close to the ground, establish large populations, and have short lives. Late succesional plant species are mainly trees that can tolerate shade. A disturbance is a change in environmental conditions that disrupts a community. Inertia/persistance is the ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered. Consistency is the ability of a living system such as a...
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