CHAPTER 7 REVIEW - LEARNING
1. Learning is defined as “the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring Information or behaviors.”
2. Two forms of associative learning are classical conditioning, in which the organism associates __________, and operant conditioning, in which the organism associates __________. a. two or more responses; a response and consequence
b. two or more stimuli; two or more responses
c. two or more stimuli; a response and consequence
d. two or more responses; two or more stimuli
3. In Pavlov’s experiments, the tone started as a neutral stimulus, and then became a(n) Conditioned stimulus.
4. Dogs have been taught to salivate to a circle but not to a square. This process is an example of Discrimination.
5. After Watson and Rayner classically conditioned Little Albert to fear a white rat, the child later showed fear in response to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat. This illustrates a. extinction.
c. spontaneous recovery.
d. discrimination between two stimuli.
6. “Sex sells!” is a common saying in advertising. Using classical conditioning terms, explain how sexual images in advertisements can condition your response to a product. A sexual image is a US that triggers a UR of interest or arousal. Before the advertisement pairs a product with a sexual image, the product is an NS. Over time the product can become a CS that triggers the CR of interest or arousal.
7. Thorndike’s law of effect was the basis for Skinner’s work on operant conditioning and behavior control.
8. One way to change behavior is to reward natural behaviors in small steps, as they get closer and closer to a desired behavior. This process is called Shaping.
9. Your dog is barking so loudly that it’s making your ears ring. You clap your hands, the dog stops barking, your ears stop ringing, and you think to yourself, “I’ll have to do that when he barks again.” The end of the barking was for you a...
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