Chapter 54

Topics: Ecology, Predation, Ecological niche Pages: 8 (734 words) Published: April 14, 2014
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Chapter 54: Community Ecology
Concept 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved.
1.

What is a community? List six organisms that would be found in your schoolyard community.

2.

This section will look at interspecific interactions. Be clear on the meaning of the prefix! To begin, distinguish between intraspecific competition and interspecific competition. Give an example of each.

Type of
Competition

Explanation

Example

Intraspecific
competition
Interspecific
competition

3.

What is G. F. Gause’s competitive exclusion principle? Give one example.

4.

Define ecological niche.

5.
Several species of Anolis lizards live in the same types of trees and have a similar diet. Discuss
resource partitioning to explain how interspecific competition is reduced. (Study Figure 54.2.)

6.

What is the difference between the fundamental niche and the realized niche?

7.

Study Figure 54.5, and then explain what is meant by character displacement. (To do this, you will have to learn or review the difference between sympatric populations and allopatric populations. You will find this information in Chapter 24.)

8.

Predation is a term that you probably already know. Can you give examples of some predator-prey combinations as listed below?

Predator

Prey

Animal

Animal

Animal

Plant

Fungus

Animal

Bacteria

Animal

Fungus

Example

Plant

9.

List three special adaptations that predator species possess for obtaining food.

10.

List three ways prey species elude predators.

11.

Compare the two types of mimicry.

Type of Mimicry
Batesian
Müllerian

Description

Example

12.

What is herbivory?

13.

Did you list any special herbivore adaptations for predation in your response to question 9? Or plant adaptations to avoid herbivory? List two adaptations for each category here.

14.

Describe and give an example of each of the following interactions:

Type of
Interaction

Description

Example

symbiosis
parasitism
commensalism
mutualism

15.

Which category above includes the other three? Note that other texts may define this term more narrowly.

16.

Your text uses +/– symbols to indicate how interspecific interactions affect survival and reproduction of the two species. Use this notation for each of these interactions.

Type of Interaction
predation
commensalism
mutualism
parasitism
interspecific competition
herbivory

+/+, +/–, –/–, +/0

17.

What is species diversity? What are its two components? Why is it important?

18.

What does an ecologist summarize in a food web?

19.

Know the levels of trophic structure in food chains. Give a food chain here, including four links that might be found in a prairie community, and tell the level for each organism.

20.

Name every organism in the pictured food chain, and give the trophic level in the box.

21.

According to the energetic hypothesis, why are food chains limited in length? How much energy is typically transferred to each higher level?

22.

What is a dominant species? For the area where you live, what would be considered a dominant tree species?

24.

Name one keystone species, and explain the effect its removal has on the ecosystem.

25.

Explain facilitator or foundation species and give an example.

You may omit bottom-up and top-down controls.
Concept 54.3- Disturbance influences species diversity and composition 26.

What is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis? Give an example of a disturbance event, and explain the effect it has on the community.

27.

Ecological succession is the changes in species that occupy an area after a disturbance. What is the difference between primary succession and secondary succession?

Concept 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community biodiversity 28.

Explain...
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