Which type of immunity becomes active as a result of the infection of a specific microorganism?
a) Naturally acquired passive immunity
b) Naturally acquired active immunity
c) Artificially acquired active immunity
d) Artificially acquired passive immunity
a) Naturally acquired active immunity
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs as a result of an infection of a specific microorganism. Active acquired immunity refers to immunologic defenses developed by the person’s own body. This immunity typically lasts many years or even a lifetime. Artificially acquired active immunity results from the administration of a killed or weakened microorganism or toxoid. Passive immunity develops when ready-made antibodies are given to a susceptible individual.
A 38-year-old female patient has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease. As the nurse completes the health history assessment she learns that the patient works as an aide at a facility that cares for children infected with AIDS, does moderate cardiovascular exercises every other day, takes no medication, has no allergies, and eats mainly a vegetarian diet with fish and chicken one to two times each week. Which of the following factors is the most important consideration in determining the status of the patient’s immune system?
There are differences in the immune system functions of men and women. For example, many autoimmune diseases have a higher incidence in females than in males, a phenomenon believed to be correlated with sex hormones. Autoimmune diseases tend to be more common in women because estrogen tends to enhance immunity. Androgen, on the other hand, tends to be immunosuppressive. Autoimmune diseases are a leading cause of death by disease in females of reproductive age.
A nurse is caring for a patient undergoing