Explain the connections between climate, agriculture, and the Nile River in the development of Egypt and Nubia.
Egypt referred to not the territory embraced by the modern state of Egypt, but to the ribbon of land bordering the lower third of the Nile between the Mediterranean and the river's first cataract near Aswan. Cataracts are an unnavigable stretch of rapids and waterfalls. The Sahara became increasingly arid, cultivators flocked to the Nile Valley and established societies that depended on intensive agriculture. Egyptians were able to take better advantage of the Nile's annual floods than the Nubians to the south because of their broad floodplains. They turned Egypt into an especially productive agricultural region that was capable of supporting a much larger population than were Nubian lands. The Greek Historian Herodotus proclaimed Egypt the "Gift of the Nile" because of its prosperity. Migrants from the Red Sea Hills in northern Ethiopia traveled down the Nile Valley and introduced to Egypt and Nubia the practice of collecting wild grains , a language ancestral to Coptic (ancient Egypt) to the lower reaches of the Nile Valley. Sudanic cultivators and herders moved down the Nile as the climate grew hotter and drier introducing Egypt and Nubia to African crops like watermelon and gourds, while Mesopotamians wheat and barley also came. They built dikes to protect their fields from floods and catchment basins to store irrigation water.
Understand the historical development of Egypt from unification to the fall of the new kingdom.
Egyptian rulers forged all the territory between the Nile delta and the river's first cataract into a unified kingdom much larger and more powerful than any other Nile state.unified rule came into Egypt about 3100 B.C.E. in the person of a conquer named Menes (also identified with an early Egyptian ruler named Narmer.) Egyptians associated the early pharaohs with