Chapter 3 Basic Geriatrics Study Guide

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Chapter 3 Study Guide/Key Terms
Physiologic Changes pg. 384-386

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

1. With aging, the __epidermis (skin)___ becomes increasingly fragile and subject to damage.
2. Clusters of __melanocytes___ cause age spots. The medical term for these is __senile lentigo__.
3. Loss of ___elastin fibers (elasticity)___ results in wrinkles.
4. Dry skin, or __xerosis__, is likely to result in itching, or __pruritus___.
5. Common skin disorders in older adults include: a. carcinoma b. melanoma c. pressure ulcers d. inflammation e. infections f. senile purpura
6. Loss of subcutaneous tissue can reduce the ability of older adults to regulate body temperature, leading to an increased risk for __hypothermia____.

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

7. Aging bones tend to show loss of the mineral __Calcium__.
8. Shrinkage of intervertebral disks leads to a condtion called _ Kyphosis__, which results in a hunchback appearance.
9. Muscle mass and tone typically ___decrease___ with age, but this effect can be reduced by regular _____exercise____.
10. Excessive loss of calcium results in _Osteoporosis_, which is characterized by __porous__, __brittle__, __fragile__ bones that are susceptible to __breakage__.
11. Three forms of arthritis that are seen in the aging population are __Osteoarthritis_, __rheumatoid arthritis_, and __gouty arthritis__.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

12. The _air passageways__ and _lung tissue_ of the chest cavity change with aging.
13. Common respiratory disorders observed with aging include: a. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) b. Influenza c. Pneumonia d. Tuberculosis e. Lung Cancer

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

14. Changes in the blood vessels with aging increase the risk for low blood pressure with position changes. This is called __Orthostatic hypotension__.
15. Chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart

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