Chapter 3- Personality, Perception, and Attribution (37-53)
Managers need to understand individual differences. The basis for understanding comes from Kurt Lewin’s early contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment. B=P*E This idea has been developed into the interactional psychology approach. This approach states that we must know something about the person and something about the situation to understand the human behavior. Four propositions of this approach Behavior is a function of continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation. The person is active in this process. He changes the situation and is changed by it. People vary in many characteristics.
Two aspects of a situation are important: the objective situation and the person’s subjective view of the situation. Person- skills and abilities, personality, perception, and ability Situation- organization, work group, job, personal life
General mental ability (GMA) is a measure of an individual’s intelligence. It is the best predictor of work performance. Personality
Personality is the relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior. It is debated that two things determine it: heredity and environment. There are two major theories of personality:
Advocates breaking down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits in order to understand human behavior. A combination of these traits forms an individual’s personality. Traits lend consistency to behavior. The ‘Big Five’ are global traits associated with behaviors at work. Least absent from work - introverted and conscientious
Rating others – lenient rater (agreeable) vs. tough rater (conscientious) Higher salaries, more promotions, more satisfied – extraverts More motivated and high performers- conscientious
Focuses on both personal dispositions and situational variables as combined predictors of behavior. Personality characteristics
Strong situations overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing cues to appropriate behavior. Weak situations will be dominated by strong personalities. Individual personalities have a greater influence in weak situations. Core self evaluation (CSE) involves a broad set of personality traits that articulates an individual’s concept of him or herself. It is a good predictor of both job satisfaction and job performance. It is concerned with the individual’s view of his/her: Locus of Control- individual’s belief about internal control (self) vs. external control (situation) Internal: People who believe they control what happens to them. Often report higher job satisfaction and performance, more likely to assume managerial positions, and prefer participative management styles. Don’t react well to close supervision. External: Believe people and circumstances control their fate. Appreciate more structured work settings and prefer not to participate in decision-making. Self-Efficacy- Person’s view of themselves as being able to perform effectively in a wide variety of situations. Employees with high self-efficiency have more confidence. It has been related to higher job satisfaction and performance. They like to participate in decision-making. Previous success or performance is one of the most important determinants of self-efficacy. Self-Esteem- An individual’s general feeling of self worth. People with high self-esteem are not strongly affected by what people think about them. They are more satisfied with their jobs and perform better. They also tend to seek out higher status jobs. Too much of a high self-esteem can be a bad thing. Success raises self-esteem, while failure lowers it. Emotional Stability
Self-monitoring is the extent to which people’s behavior is based on cues. High self-monitors- adjust their behavior according to the situation and the behavior of others. More unpredictable and...
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