Chapter 25 Outline

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Chapter 25: Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, 1800-1890
1. Introduction
a. The French under Napoleon III seized power in Mexico
b. Maximilian deposed
c. Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas gain independence
2. Independence in Latin America
a. Roots of revolution, to 1810
i. Great works of the Enlightenment and Napoleon III’s decision to invade Portugal ii. The Junta Central iii. The growth of American Nationalism
b. Spanish south America, 1810-1825
i. Independence declared in Caracas Venezuela in 1811 ii. Simon Bolivar iii. Gran Colombia iv. Buenos Aires and Rio de la Plata
c. Mexico, 1810-1823
i. Spain’s richest colony ii. Revolution against Spanish control iii. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla iv. Jose Maria Morelos and Col. Agustin de Iturbide
d. Brazil, to 1831
i. King John VI must return to Portugal ii. Brazilians began to reevaluate brazil’s relationship to Portugal iii. Pedro I
3. The problem of order, 1825-1890
a. Constitutional experiments
i. Constitutionalism ii. The British north Americans and the Spanish and Portuguese South Americans have different experience in self-government iii. Canada iv. Latin American nations struggle
v. The political role of the Catholic Church vi. Limiting the power of the military
b. Personalist leaders
i. Many used newly earned revolutionary status to gain power ii. Personalist politics were more influential in Latin America iii. Marginalized groups and populists leaders iv. Jose Antonio Paeq (Venezuela)
v. Andrew Jackson (United States) vi. Personalist leaders in Latin America
c. The threat of regionalism
i. Newly independent states were weak and many suffered overthrow ii. Mexico, Central America, and “Gran Colombia” iii. Rio de la Plata iv. The United States

d. Foreign interventions and regional wars
i. Wars helped establish regional powers ii. The War of 1812 iii. British and French threat to Latin America iv. The United States

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