Chapter 25 Notes

Topics: Nazi Germany, World War II, Soviet Union Pages: 11 (2622 words) Published: March 30, 2014
Sean McHugh
AP World History
Cox, Period 5

Chapter 25 Notes

Retreat from Democracy: Dictatorial Regimes
Few democratic states. Rise of fascism. Many other countries adopt authoritarian states

Stepping Back from Democracy
Mass politics helps spread democracy through Europe but war slows it. Causes distrust in it Societies badly divided. Working class strong, middle class not Women forced out of jobs after war. Have no husbands, must work. Population worries Great Depression makes it worse. Politics emphasize conflict. Support Commies/Fascists Totalitarian state= government control overt all aspects of life New states expected loyalty and commitment to goals. Used mass propaganda and high speed communication to conquer minds of subjects Modern totalitarian state led by single leader/party. Individual freedom subordinate

Birth of Fascism
Mussolini has first successful fascist movement in Europe (Italy). Fascist party supported by middle class workers and large landowners. Squadristi= armed fascists formed to attack socialist offices/newspapers 1926- Government hold press laws, ability to dissolve any parties, unlawful arrests Police in Italy weren’t as impressive, efficient, brutal as Nazi Police Simple propaganda. Tried to indoctrinate young people with ideals (Young Fascists) Women supposed to be baby/home makers. Family= basic pillar of state Mussolini never achieved as much control as Stalin/Hitler

Hitler and Nazi Germany
Hitler tried to take power in Germany but failed. However he gained national attention and 10 years later, he had taken complete power Hitler and the Early Nazi Party
Hitler joined/controlled German Workers Party renamed Nazis. It then developed into a mass political movement with own police force. (SA) Hitler staged Beer Hall Putsch to spark revolution, failed. Sentenced to prison Wrote “My Struggle” in prison. Realized he would come to power constitutionally only “Extreme German Nationalism/anti-Semitism/anti-communism linked with social Darwinism to create theory of struggle and superiority” Rise to Power

Nazi Party now biggest party. Helped by Great Depression (radical parties appealing) Hitler appealed national pride/honor/traditional military. Became chancellor Concentration camps made for opponents. Unions/other parties abolished Foundation for Totalitarian state under Hitler

Nazi State, 1933-1939
Wanted to develop Aryan pure race by using mass demonstrations Hitler= absolute ruler. Nazi Party had internal conflict sometimes Gained support as unemployment dropped through public works projects SS terrorized public. Gained control of all police forces. Repression/murder Churches, schools, colleges under Nazi control. Youth Organizations formed Women preferred to stay at home, make children or work as nurses/social workers Strong anti-Semitism. NUREMBERG LAWS separate Jews from Germans Kristallnacht led to 20,000 Jews sent to concentration camps

Stalinist Era in the Soviet Union
First 5 year plan was to transform USSR’s economy from agrarian to industrial Steel, machinery, oil all increased. Rapid industrialization and agriculture collectivization Millions of peasants starved in artificial famine. Only allowed one tiny garden plot Stalin purged many Old Bolsheviks and other citizens

Supported family tradition. Outlawed abortion after declining population Communist education program for higher education works to make future leaders

Rise of Militarism in Japan
Rise started from growing military influence in government hierarchy Multi party system of Minseito/Seiyukai dominated but base was weak China problems/Great Depression make Japan unstable. Trade profits low Tsuyoshi assassinated, replaced by Admiral Saito Makoto. Some hated Shidehara policy (interaction with outside world). Government influenced by military/big nationalists leads to chaos and left wings persecuted

Q: A totalitarian state is controlled by a single dictator in every aspect of life. Italy...
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