February 12, 2011
Chapter 17 review questions
1.How did the enlightenment change basic Western attitudes toward the reform, faith, and reason? First it changed faith because it allowed people to worship anyway they please. The enlightenment set the stage for most of the ideas that are among us today. It also had the thinkers to attempt to discover the ration behind European government. What were the major formative influences on the philosophers? They had a strong need for administration and economic reform after the war. Copernicus to Newton they persuaded philosophers and many writers that thought inherited from both ancient and medieval christen worlds were wrong and need to be challenged. Newton encouraged philosophers to study nature directly and avoid metaphysics and supernaturalism. How important were Voltaire and the encyclopedia in the success of the enlightenment? It was important because he believed that all men should be able to have knowledge of everything and he must be able to have access to it. 2.Why did the philosophers consider organized religion to be there greatest enemy? The churches took tithes and owned a large bit of the land all the presents were forced to tithe (give money) and it showed that they were forced through their own will. What were the basic tenets of deism? Writes believed that nature was rational, so they thought of a god that created nature must also be rational and natural. How did Jewish writers contribute to enlightenment thinking about religion? Descartes started by looking at the power of human reasoning to reconcrptualize traditional thought age reflected the age of scientific revolution, Spinoza so closely identified god and nature or the spiritual world, that contemporaries condemned him. What are the similarities and differences between the enlightenment evaluation of Islam and its evaluation of Christianity and Judaism? They were different because the christens did not agree with them allowing more than one wife at a single time, they also said Muhammad was a false profit because he never performed miracles, the christens said that the Islam faith was a promiscuous religion because the Islam’s believed that heaven was a place of delight. 3.What were the attitudes of the philosophies toward women? They criticized the education of women and deceived them as overly religious. Montesquieu believed women were not inferior to men and should have a role in society. What was Rousseau’s view on women? What were separate spheres he imagined men and women occupying? Rousseau set forth a radical version of the view that men and women occupy separate spears; women were weaker and inferior to men in all aspects except love. What were Mary Wollstonecraft criticisms of Rousseau’s view? Wollstonecraft thought Rousseau attempted to narrow women’s vision and limit their experience. She said that his theories made them like slaves to men. 4.How did the views of the mercantilist about the earth’s resources differ from those of Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations? They were different because the book by Adam Smith wanted people to be prosperous, Rousseau wanted them to do good even if it meant for them to be poor, and the mercantilist was the opposite they didn’t believe in total loyalty of the community. Why might Smith be regarded as an advocate of the consumer? Because Smith had a strong argue for people to do good despite their wealth, and be highly encourage people to have loyalty to their community. How did his theory of history work to the detriment of less economically advanced non European peoples? His theories allowed people to let people go and find their own economic interest. How some enlightenment writers did criticizes European empires? They criticized the Europeans on their morals, conquest of Americans. 5.How did the political views of Montesquieu differ from those of Rousseau? The Montesquieu believe in equality of genders and women had a right to divorce if needed at their own free will. Was Montesquieu view of English accurate? Yes because it inspired the women because the encyclopedia suggested ways to improve there lives. Was Rousseau a child of the enlightenment or its enemy? More toward the enemy because it was going about in the society establishing all these laws and theories that a lot of the people in the society didn’t agree with. Which did Rousseau value more, the individual or society? He states that he hated the society in which he lived in however he is all for society because he believes that all the evil in the society is from the individual and you must change them to fix the society. 6.Were the enlightened monarch’s true believers in the ideals of the philosophers, or were there enlightenment a mere veneer? They were more against them because it gave people a different outlook on life and they didn’t agree with government being basically overthrown. Was there power really absolute? Their power was not absolute because even kings were put to death when they broke the law. What motivated there reforms? Catherine the great was their motivation and she presented the reforms guaranteed nobles to many rights and privileges.