chapter 17

Good Essays
Chapter 17: The Special Senses

I. An Introduction to the Special Senses

The state of our nervous systems determines what we perceive.
1. For example, during sympathetic activation, we experience a heightened awareness of sensory information and hear sounds that would normally escape our notice.
2. Yet, when concentrating on a difficult problem, we may remain unaware of relatively loud noises.

The five special senses are: olfaction, gustation, vision, equilibrium, and hearing.

II. Olfaction

The olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity on either side of the nasal septum.

The olfactory organs are made up of two layers: the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria.

The olfactory epithelium contains the olfactory receptors, supporting cells, and basal (stem) cells.

The surfaces of the olfactory organs are coated with the secretions of the olfactory glands.

Olfactory Receptor

The olfactory receptors are highly modified neurons.

Olfactory reception involves detecting dissolved chemicals as they interact with odorant-binding proteins.

Olfactory Pathways

Axons leaving the olfactory epithelium collect into 20 or more bundles that penetrate the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum where the first synapse occurs.

Axons leaving the olfactory bulb travel along the olfactory tract to reach the olfactory cortex, the hypothalamus, and portions of the limbic system.

In olfaction, the arriving information reaches the information centers without first synapsing in the thalamus.

Olfactory Discrimination

The olfactory system can distinguish thousands of chemical stimuli. The CNS interprets smells by the pattern of receptor activity.

Aging and Olfactory Sensitivity

The olfactory receptor population shows considerable turnover. The number of olfactory receptors declines with age.

III. Gustation

Taste (gustatory) receptors are clustered in taste buds.

Taste

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Satisfactory Essays

    Chapter 17

    • 627 Words
    • 16 Pages

    CHAPTER 17 SUGGESTED ANSWERS Exercise 17 - 1 Jan. 5 Purchases 1,789,200 Accounts Payable 1,789,200 70,000 x P25.56 Mar. 9 Purchases 16,780 Accounts Payable 16,780 100,000 x P.1678 May 10 Accounts Payable 1,789,200 Foreign Exchange Gain or Loss 2,800 Cash 1,792,000 70,000 x P25.60 = P1,792,000 16 Accounts Payable 16,780 Foreign Exchange Gain or Loss 1,280 Cash 15,500…

    • 627 Words
    • 16 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Chapter 17

    • 441 Words
    • 2 Pages

    APES Ch 7 and 17 Study Guide Water Resources and Pollution Chapter 7 Water Resources Vocabulary Precipitation Infiltration Runoff Capillary water Transpiration Evaporation Percolation Gravitational water Ground water Water table Aquifer Recharge area Seep Spring Acidity Turbidity Hardness Salinity Dissolved oxygen BOD pH Chapter 17 Water Pollution Vocabulary Turbid Phytoplankton Eutrophication Nonbiodegradable Point source pollution Nonpoint source pollution…

    • 441 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Chapter 17

    • 262 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Chapter #17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy – Big Picture Themes IDENTIFICATIONS: John Tyler Was the tenth President of the United States. A native of Virginia, Tyler served as a state legislator, governor, U.S. representative, and U.S. senator before winning election as Vice President in 1840. Slidell’s Mission U.S. troops were stationed at the U.S./Mexico border, ready to defend against Mexican attack. The Mexican government rejected Slidell's mission. After Mexican forces attacked…

    • 262 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    Chapter 17

    • 1868 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Chapter 17 - The Age of Absolutism. (1550-1800). (1) Extending Spanish Power.
(2) France Under Louis XIV.
(3) Triumph of Parliament in England. (4) Rise of Austria and Prussia.
(5) Absolute Monarchy in Russia. (1) Extending Spanish Power. Setting the Scene.
1500s-1700s. Monarchs get powerful. Build royal army to replace nobles’ army. Take new lands and expand government. Lay foundation for nations of Europe today. Serious-minded King Philip II of Spain was member of Hapsburg dynasty. The Hapsburg…

    • 1868 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Chapter 17

    • 1904 Words
    • 22 Pages

    Managing Operations and Staffing Back to Table of Contents Chapter 17 Managing Operations and Staffing Managing Operations and Staffing 17.1 Managing Operations 17.2 Staffing and Company Policies 2 Managing Operations and Staffing 17.1 Explain the significance of operational plans. Describe the purpose of operating policies, rules, and regulations. Section 17.1 Managing Operations 3 Managing Operations and Staffing 17.1 Establishing and implementing policies and rules allow your…

    • 1904 Words
    • 22 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Solution Chapter 17

    • 3030 Words
    • 13 Pages

    CHAPTER 17 PROCESS COSTING 17-1 Industries using process costing in their manufacturing area include chemical processing, oil refining, pharmaceuticals, plastics, brick and tile manufacturing, semiconductor chips, beverages, and breakfast cereals. 17-2 Process costing systems separate costs into cost categories according to the timing of when costs are introduced into the process. Often, only two cost classifications, direct materials and conversion costs, are necessary. Direct…

    • 3030 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Chapter 17 Apish

    • 3199 Words
    • 13 Pages

    U.S. HISTORY (AP) CHAPTER 17 MANIFEST DESTINY AND ITS LEGACY 1. Explain the phrase “Tyler became a president without a party, and the Whigs lost the presidency without losing an election.” Tyler’s enemies accused him of being a Democrat in Whig clothing, but this charge was only partially true. The Whig party, like the Democratic party, was something of a catchall, and the accidental president belonged to the minority wing, which embraced a number of Jeffersonian states’ righters. Tyler…

    • 3199 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Chapter 16 17

    • 379 Words
    • 2 Pages

    1. Contrast the characteristics of economic growth in the HPAE with those characteristics of Latin America. Shared growth, rising economic quality, rapid accumulation of physical and human capital, rapid growth of manufactured exports, and stable macroeconomic environments. 2. How can passage through a demographic lead to high savings and investment rates. Increases the ratio of economically active to the total population. This creates a larger pool of income out of which savings and investment…

    • 379 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Chapter 17 Vocab * Acid deposition- the settling of acidic or acid-forming pollutants from the atmosphere onto Earth’s surface. * Acid rain- Acid deposition that takes place through rain. * Aerosols- very fine liquid droplets or solid particles aloft in the atmosphere. * Air pollutant- gases and particulate material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate or harm people or other organisms. * Air pollution- the act of pollution the air, or the condition of being polluted…

    • 739 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    solutions manual chapter 17

    • 7624 Words
    • 77 Pages

    CHAPTER 17 SPONTANEITY, ENTROPY, AND FREE ENERGY Questions 11. Living organisms need an external source of energy to carry out these processes. Green plants use the energy from sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis. In the human body, the energy released from the metabolism of glucose helps drive the synthesis of proteins. For all processes combined, ∆Suniv must be greater than zero (the second law). 12. Dispersion increases the entropy of the universe because…

    • 7624 Words
    • 77 Pages
    Good Essays