1. RIZAL AS HISTORIAN Rizal’s research studies in the British Museum (London) and in Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) enriched his historical knowledge. His annotations to Morga’s book showed his familiarity with historiography. He told Isabelo de los Reyes, “A historian ought to be rigorously imparted…I never assert anything on my own authority. I cite texts and when I do, I have them before me.” 2. RIZAL AS HISTORIANFirst Voyage Around the World (Italian) Antonio PigafettaHistorical works of Marsden, Raffles, Lord Stanley, and Wallace in EnglishWritings of Blumetritt, Jagor, Virchow in GermanBooks of M. Jacquet, J. Mallat, & A. Marche in FrenchWorks of TH Pardo de Tavera & Pedro Paterno, in Spanish 3. Other works of Rizal which Qualify him to be a Real Historian:1. Ma- yi2. Tawalisi of Ibn Batuta3. Filipinas Dentro de Cien Anos4. La Politica Colonial on Filipinas5. Historia de la Familia Rizal de Calamba6. Los Pueblos del Archipelago Indico 4. The Philippines Within a Century In this article, Rizal portrayed the glorious past of the Filipino people, described its economic stagnation and unhappiness under the harsh and bungling Spanish rule. At the last paragraph, he also peered into the future and warned Spain of what would happen to its colonial empire in Asia if she would not adopt a more liberal and enlightened policy toward Philippines. 5. The Indolence of the FilipinosAn essay, which is an able defense of the allegedindolence of the Filipinos.Reasons why Filipinos did not work hard duringSpanish regime : 1. The native revolts and the other internal disorders which followed the establishment of American rule 2. The wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain against the Dutch, Portuguese, English and other enemies 3. The frightful raids of the Muslim pirates 6. The Indolence of the Filipinos4.The forced labor, resulting in the abandonment of industry,commerce and agriculture5. Lack of stimulus to work harder because the people couldnot enjoy the fruits of their labor6. Government neglect and indifference to agriculture,commerce and industry7. The bad example shown by the Spaniards on despisingmanual labor8. The teaching of the Spanish missionaries9. Encouragement and propagation of gambling by theSpanish authorities10. System of Spanish education did not promote theeconomic enterprise and activity 7. International Association of FilipinologistsAim: To study the Philippines from the scientific and historical point of view. The officers: President: Ferdinand Blumentritt (Austrian) Vice –Pres: Edward Plauchut (French) Counsellor: Dr. Reinhold Rost (Anglo-German) Counsellor: Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor (Filipino-Spanish) Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino)The holding of Inaugural convention did not materialize because the French government discourage the holding of conferences by private organization for the period of international exposition. 8. Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor Dr. Reinhold Rost 9. Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong and financial Aim: To train and educate men of good family means in accordance to the demands of modern times and circumstances Mariano Cunanan – promised to raise P40,000 as initial payment of the college Curriculum: o Ethics- Study of Religion – Natural Law – Civil law – Deportment – Hygiene o Mathematics – Physics and Chemistry – Natural History – Geography – Political Economy o Universal History – Philippine History – Logic – Rhetoric – Poetics o Spanish – English – French – German – Chinese – Tagalog o Gymnastics – Equitation – Fencing – Swimming – Music – Drawing – Dancing 10. Por TelefonoRizal wrote Por Telefono in the fall of 1889 in Barcelona as reply to another slanderer, Fr. Salvador Font who was the mastermind of banning Noli.This was under the authorship of “Dimas Alang”Describes in comical vein a telephone conversation between Fr. Font who was in Madrid and father provincial of St. Agustin Convent in Manila. 11. Por TelefonoDemonstrates Rizal’s prophetic insight: o In the year 1900, Philippines was connected to Metropolis by means of telephone laid out by Anglo-Catalan company called Trans-Oceanic Telephone Company. o Rizal predicted much ahead of time that people could carry on overseas telephonic conversations. 12. Christmas in ParisRizal and Jose Albert planned to have sumptuous Christmas dinner – fried chicken, rice and vegetables.After New Year, Rizal made a brief visit to London due to two reasons: o To check up his annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos with the original copy in British Museum o To see Gertrude Beckett for last timeBy mid January 1890, he was back in Paris and suffered a terrible headache.
1. Life and Works
Dr. Jose P. Rizal
2. CHAPTER XVI:
IN GAY PARIS, 1889 - 90
3. After his trip to London, he move to PARIS. Timely there is an International Exposition being held at Paris. Rizal’s roommates
(a) Captain Justo Trinidad – former gobernadorcillo& a refugee from Spanish tyranny; (b) Jose Albert – young student from Manila.
4. In his spare hours, he used to dine at the house of the De Taveras: 1) DR.TRINIDAD PARDO DE TAVERA – physician by vocation and philologist by avocation.2) DR.FELIX PARDO DE TAVERA – also a physician by vocation and an artist & sculptor by avocation.3) PAZ PARDO DE TAVERA – wife of Juan Luna.4) DON JOAQUIN PARDO DE TAVERA – an exleof 1872 who escape from Marianas & lived in France. 5.
MR.EDWARD BOUSTED - was born in the Phil., the son of a rich French businessman of Singapore, and had married a daughter of prominent Genato family of Manila. Two attractive daughter
1. Nellie – a fencer2. Adelina – quiet, dignified & refined 6. He carried his artistic hobbies and made two statues
1. The Beggar
2. The Maid with a Baker – sent to Blumentrittogether with an artistic wallet (PETACA) made of Philippine vine. 7. TWO CLUBS FOUNDED BY RIZAL
1. Kidlat Club
2. Indios Bravos
8. Kidlat Club – special club form in order to organize Fils. In the French country Members:
Antonio & Juan Luna,
TWO SATIRICAL WORK OF RIZAL
La Vision de Fray Rodriquez
10. TWO MAGNIFICENT PROJECT OF RIZAL IN PARIS1. International Association of Filipinologist2. Modern Filipino College in Hongkong International Association of Filipinologist– association that aim to study the Philippines from the scientific and historical piont of view. 11. OFFICERS OF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FILIPINOLOGIST President:Dr.FerdinandBlumentritt(Austrian)Vice President : Mr. Edmund Plauehul(French)Counsellor : Dr. Reinhold Rost(Anglo-German)Counsellor : Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor(Filipino- Spanish)Secretary : Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino) 12. Modern Filipino in Hongkong– a college that aims to train and educate men of good family and financial means in according with the demands of modern times and circumstances.Mr. Cunanan- who promised Rizal to help him raise money as initial capital for the college.P40,000 – amount needed as capital for the college. 13. PorTelepono– another satirical work of Rizal that is a reply to fr. Salvador Font, who mastermind the banning of his Noli. – was published in booklet form in Barcelona, 1889. – it describes in anical vain Father Salvador Font and a friar in the San Agustin Convent in Manila. Dimasalang – pen name used by Rizal in writing PorTelepono. 14. AdelinaBoustead – another romance of Rizal in Paris.
Antonio Luna – a dashing man of violent passions who is madly in love with Nelly (Adelina’s sister) Mir Deas– Spanish newspaperman who was writing articles against Filipinos. 15. Reasons that Rizal marriage did not prosper:
1. Adelina was not sure ho loved her because of his broken engagement 2. Rizal refused to accept the condition that he will become a protestant like her 3. Adelina’s mother opposed the match because Rizal was not rich enough to support a family in style.
Rizal’s research studies in the British Museum (London) and in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) enrich his historical knowledge. His knowledge of foreign languages enabled Rizal to read historical documents and books in the languages in which they were originally written: 2.
He read Pigafetta’s famous First Voyage Around the World in Italian The annotations on Morga’s book
Filipinas Dentro de Cien Años (The Philippines within a Century) 3.
Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos (Indolence of the Filipinos) and many more. The Philippines Within a Century is an article written by Rizal, he expressed his views on the Spanish colonization in the Philippines and predicted with amazing accuracy the tragic end of Spain’s sovereignty in Asia. 4.
The Indolence of the Filipinos , is an essay of Rizal is also a prestigious work of historical scholarship. It is an able defense of the alleged indolence of the Filipinos. Rizal made a critical study of the causes. Based on his findings the causes are: 5.
The native revolts and other internal disorders which fallowed the establishment of Spanish rule. The wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain against the Dutch, Portuguese and other enemies. The forced labor which compelled thousands of Filipinos laborers. 6.
Lack of stimulus to work.
The bad example shown by the Spaniards in despising manual labor. The teaching of the Spanish missionaries that it is easier for the poor to enter the heaven. Encouragement and propagation of gambling by the Spanish authorities 7.
System of Spanish education did not promote economic enterprise and activity. Another project of Rizal was the establishment of an “International Association of Filipinologist” and have its inaugural convention in the French capital. 8.
Another magnificent project of Rizal in Paris which also fizzled out was his plan to established a modern college in Hong Kong , but did not materialize. “ Por Telepono” a satirical work as reply to another slanderer of Fr. Salvador Font, who masterminded the banning of his Noli. 9.
December 25, 1889 was a wintry day in Paris. They prepared a Christmas dinner with his friends. Shortly after New Year, Rizal made a brief visit to London. Biographers do not know the purpose of his visit. It may be due to two reasons: (1) To check up his annotated edition of Morga’s Sucesos book with the original copy in the British Museum . (2) to see Gertrude Beckett for the last time. January 1890, he was back to Paris. He complained of a terrible headache. 10. Chapter 16: In Belgian Brussels (1890)
On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels
For 2 reasons
The cost of living in Paris was very high
The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works especially the writing of his 2 nd novel El Filibusterismo 11.
While in Brussels, he lived in Rue Philippe run by 2 Jacoby sisters (Suzanne and Marie) He was busy writing El Fili and articles for the La Solidaridad Despite of his European education and his knowledge of foreign languages, Rizal loved his own native language He was the 1 st to advocate to the Filipinization of our letters c and o and use instead K and w 12.
In Brussels, Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura, that there are some Filipinos who were destroying the reputation of Filipinos by gambling too much Thus, he wrote a letter address to Del Pilar , to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their Fatherland’s freedom The gambling Filipinos were angry when they learned or Rizal’s moralizing. They called him “PAPA” instead of Pepe
Rizal received bad news from home as follows:
Paciano and his brother-in-law were deported to Mindoro
M. Hidalgo were vanished for the 2 nd time to Bohol
In his moment of despair Rizal had bad dreams
And although he was not superstitious, he feared that he would not live long But he wanted to finish his 2 nd novel El Fili before he went to his grave. 14.
In his letter to MH Del Pilar he said:
In my childhood I had a strange belief that I would not reach 30 years of age In the face of sufferings , Rizal planned to go home
All his friends objected to his plan and warned him of the danger that awaited him at home Something happened that changed his decision and he informed MH Del Pilar that he was going to Madrid to supervise the handling of the case of his family in Calamba 15.
While in Brussels, he wrote a poem entitled “ A Mi (to My Muse) a pathetic poem, lack of exquisiteness. While he was preparing for his trip to Madrid, two things brought some measure of cheers 1) The summertime festival of Belgium, which was celebrated in carnival style – with colourful costumes, fantastic floats 16.
2) His romance with Petite Jacoby – the pretty niece of his landladies Rizal was so charming and dignified gentleman that Suzanne was attracted to him He was lonely in a strange country and Leonor Rivera was so far away He found certain bliss in the company of a pretty Belgian girl 17.
Like all the other girls in Rizal's life, Suzanne fell in love with Rizal And she cried when he left for Madrid
18. Articles Published in La Solidaridad
A La Defensa
La Verdad Para Todos
Llanto y Risas
19. Misfortunes in Madrid
August ,1890, Rizal arrived in Madrid
He immediately secured the help of the Filipino colony and the association of the Hispano-Filipino and the liberal Spanish newspaper In securing justice for the oppressed Calamba tenants including his family Together with MH Del Pilar )acted as his lawyer) and Dr. Dominador Gomez (secretary of the association) called on the Minister of Colonies to protest the injustices committed against the Calamba tenants 20.
Nothing came out of Rizal's interview
More terrible news reached Rizal as he was waging a futile war for justice He learned that there was already an ejectment order against Rizal's family and the other Calamba tenants He further learned that their parents were forcibly ejected from their homes and were then living in the house of Narcisa He even sought the help of liberal Spanish statesmen but he was again disappointed They just gave him honeyed words of sympathy and nothing else 22.
Blumentrit urged him to talk with Queen Regent Maria Cristina (the ruler of Spain) But he could not because he had neither powerful friends to bring him to the queen nor gold to grease the palms of influential courtiers Another disappointment happened when his friend Jose Ma. Panganiban died in Barcelona after lingering illness 23.
Towards the end of August, Rizal attended a social reunion
At that time A. Luna was bitter because of his frustrated romance with Nellie Bousted He was blaming Rizal for his failure to win her
In a fit of jealousy, which his alcohol be-fogged mind uttered unsavoury remarks about Nellie 24.
Rizal overheard him and due to his high regards to women
Angrily he challenged Luna to a duel
The Filipinos was shocked and tried to pacify Rizal and Luna pointing that it could damage their cause in Spain Luna when he became sober, realized that he made afoul of himself and apologized to Rizal 25.
On another occasion, he challenged another man to a duel -Wenceslao Retana, his bitter enemy of the pen He wrote in his article that the friends of Rizal had not paid their rents so that they were ejected from their lands in Calamba Such insult stirred Rizal to action, he challenged Retana to a duel and he said that Retana's blood or his apology could vindicate the good blame of Rizal's family and friends 26.
Retana to save his own skin, he published a retraction and an apology in the newspaper after being warned of Rizal's superior skills in both pistol and sword
Rizal in Belgian Brussels (1890)
January 28, 1890 – Rizal left Paris for Brussels
Brussels– capital of Belgium.
Two reasons why Rizal leave Paris:
1. The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition. 2. The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works, especially the writing of his second novel El Filibusterismo. Life in Brussels
Jose Albert – accompanied Rizal to move to Brussels.
Jose Alejandro – an engineering student who replaced Jose Albert. Rizal was busy writing his second novel.
He wrote articles for La Solidaridad and letters for his family and friends. He spent part of his time in medical clinic.
He had gymnastics at the gymnasium and target practice and fencing at the armory. Articles Published in La Solidaridad
1. “A La Defensa” (To La Defensa), April 30, 1889.
2. “La verdad Para Todos” ( The Truth For All), May 31, 1889. 3. “Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo,” June 15, 18889 4. “Una Profanacion” (A Profanation), July 31, 1889
5. “Verdades Nuevas” (New Truths), July 31, 1889
6. “Crueldad” (Cruelty), August 15, 1889
7. “Differencias” (Differences), September 15, 1889
8. “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences), November 30, 1889 9. “Llanto y Risas” (Tears and Laughters), November 30, 1889 10. “Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude), January 15, 1890
New Orthography of Tagalong Language
Rizal was the first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography. For instance, the Tagalog letters k and w should be used instead of the Spanish c and o. salacot – salakot
arao – araw
Early in September, 1886 – while in Leipzig, Rizal adopted the Filipinized Tagalog orthography in his Tagalog translations of Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell and Andersen’s Fairy Tales and again he used it in his first novel Noli Me Tangere (Berlin, 1887 “Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala” (The new Orthography of the Tagalog Language) – article of Rizal and was published in La Solidaridad.
Dr. Trnidad H. Pardo de Tavera – author of the celebrated work El Sancristo en la Lengua Tagala (Sankrist in the Tagalog Language) which was published in Paris, 1884. Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipinos for Gambling
Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. Accordingly Rizal wrote to M. H. Del Pilar on May 28, 1890 to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their fatherland’s freedom. The gambling people in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing. They derisively called him “Papa” (Pope) instead of “Pepe”. Bad News from Home
The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worst.
The management of the Dominican hacienda continually raised the land rents. The Dominican order filled a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal Family of their lands in Calamba. The tenants were persecuted.
Paciano, Antonio Lopez and Silvestre Ubaldo were deported to Mindoro. Manuel T. Hidalgo – was banished to Bohol for the second time. Preparation to Go Home
Rizal planned to go home. He could not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives and friends in the distant Philippines were persecuted. July 9, 1890 – upon hearing that Graciano Lopez Jaena was planning to go to Cuba, Rizal wrote to Ponce to oppose the plan of action of Graciano. July 18, 1890 – he wrote another letter to Ponce in which he expresses his determination to go home. All his friends, including Blumentritt, Jose Ma. Basa, and Ponce, were horrified by Rizal’s to return to the Philippines. They warned him of the danger that awaited him at home. Decision to go to Madrid
Something happened that made Rizal to change his plan in returning to the Philippines when he received a letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain. June 20, 1890 – Rizal wrote to M. H. Del Pilar retaining the latter’s service as a lawyer and informed Del Pilar that he was going to Madrid, in order to supervise the handling of the case. July 29, 1890 – he wrote a letter to Ponce announcing that he was leaving Brussels at the beginning of the following month and would arrive Madrid about the 3rd and 4th of August. To My Muse “A Mi…” – he wrote this poem which was against the a background of mental anguish in Brussels, during those sad days when he was worried by family disasters. Romance with Petite Jacoby
Two things brought some measure of cheer to the despondent Rizal as he was preparing for his trip to Madrid: 1. The summertime festival of Belgium, which was celebrated in carnival style. 2. His romance with Petite Jacoby, the pretty niece of his landladies. Rizal was so charming and dignified a gentleman the Petite Susanne was attracted to him. He was lonely in a strange country and Leonor Rivera was so far away. Like other women – Segunda Katigbak, Orang Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, O-Sei-San, Gettie Beckett, Consuelo Ortiga y Perez and Nellie Boustead – Susanne fell in love with Rizal