CHAPTER 13 NOTES.
European Empires in the Americas
1. Western European empires were marked by maritime expansion. Spaniards in Caribbean, then on to Aztec and Inca empires Portuguese in Brazil
British, French, and Dutch colonies in North America
Europeans controlled most of the Americas by the mid-nineteenth century 2. The European Advantage
geography: European Atlantic states were well positioned for involvement in the Americas the Atlantic’s fixed winds helped, once they were understood need: Chinese and Indians had such rich markets in the Indian Ocean that there wasn’t much incentive to go beyond marginality: Europeans were aware of their marginal position in Eurasian commerce and wanted to change it rivalry: interstate rivalry drove rulers to compete
merchants: growing merchant class wanted direct access to Asian wealth a. wealth and status: colonies were an opportunity for impoverished nobles and commoners i. 7. religion:
persecuted minorities looking for more freedom
European states and trading companies mobilized resources well a. seafaring technology b. iron, gunpowder weapons, and horses gave Europeans an initial advantage over people in the Americas 9. Rivalries within the Americas provided allies for European invaders The Great Dying—the demographic collapse of Native American societies 1. pre-Columbian Western Hemisphere had a population of perhaps 60 million–80 million 2. no immunity to Old World diseases 3. Europeans brought European and African diseases a. mortality rate of up to 90 percent among Native American populations b. native population nearly vanished in the Caribbean c. Central Mexico: population dropped from 10 million–20 million to around 1 million by 1650 d. similar mortality in North America D. The Columbian Exchange
1. massive native mortality created a labor shortage in the Americas 2. migrant Europeans and African slaves created entirely new societies a. brought plants and animals to the Americas 3. American food crops (e.g., corn, potatoes, and cassava) spread widely in the Eastern Hemisphere a. potatoes especially allowed enormous population growth b. corn and sweet potatoes were important in China and Africa 4. exchange with the Americas reshaped the world economy a. importation of millions of African slaves to the Americas b. new and lasting link among Africa, Europe, and the Americas 5. network of communication, migration, trade, transfer of plants and animals (including microbes) is called “the Columbian exchange” a. the Atlantic world connected four continents b. Europeans got most of the rewards i. new information helped lead to the Scientific Revolution ii. colonies were an outlet for rapidly expanding European population iii. shift in the global balance of power to favor Europe III. Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas Europeans did not just conquer and govern established societies: they created wholly new societies. all were shaped by mercantilism—theory that governments should encourage exports and accumulate bullion to serve their countries colonies should provide...
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