Chapter 10 Outline
I. The Rise of Popular Politics, 1820–1829 A. The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties
Expansion of the franchise was the most dramatic expression of the democratic revolution; beginning in the late 1810s, many states revised their constitutions to give the franchise to nearly every white male farmer and wage earner.
In America’s traditional agricultural society, wealthy notables dominated the political system and managed local elections by building up supporting factions.
Smallholding farmers and ambitious la- borers in the Midwest and Southwest launched the first challenges to the traditional political order; the constitutions of new states prescribed a broad male franchise and voters usually elected middling men to local and state offices.
B.The Election of 1824 1. With the democratization of politics, the aristocratic Federalist Party virtually disappeared, and the Republicans broke up into competing factions.
2. The election of 1824 had five candidates who all called themselves Republicans: John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson.
3. Congress selected William Crawford as the official candidate, yet the other candidates refused to accept the selection and sought support among ordinary voters.
Although Jackson received nationwide support, no candidate received an absolute majority in the electoral college, so members of the House of Representatives had to choose the president.
C. The Last Notable President: John Quincy Adams
Adams embraced the American System proposed by Clay: protective tariffs, federally subsidized transportation improvements, and a national bank.
Adams’s policies favored the business elite of the Northeast and the entrepreneurs and commercial farmers in the Midwest but won little support among southern planters and smallholding farmers.
Congress approved only a few of Adams’s proposals for internal improvements, such