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Chapter 1 research paper

By LucyLover97 Oct 13, 2013 717 Words

Section 10-1
1. A purine is a nitrogen-containing base with two
rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples may
include adenine or guanine.
2. A pyrimidine is a nitrogen-containing base with
one ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples
may include cytosine or thymine.
3. A complementary base-pair is a pair of nitrogencontaining bases connected to each other by
hydrogen bonds. Examples may include adeninethymine
and cytosine-guanine.
4. one of three molecules that constitutes a

1. c 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. b

1. The three parts are a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate
group, and a nitrogen-containing base. The
phosphate group and the base are connected to
different parts of the sugar.
2. Since guanine and cytosine are complementary,
another 15% of the nucleotides must contain
cytosine. The remaining 70% of the nucleotides
(100%–30%) must contain adenine and thymine in
equal proportions (35% each), since they are complementary
to each other.
3. Producing exact copies ensures that when a cell
divides, the offspring cells will receive the same
genetic information.
4. The hydrogen bonds break easily, making it easier
for the two strands in the molecule to separate
during replication. The strong covalent bonds
ensure that the sequence of nucleotides remains
fixed in each strand.

a, deoxyribose; b, guanine; c, adenine;
d, phosphate group

Section 10-2
1. mRNA carries genetic information from the DNA in
the nucleus to the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell.
2. tRNA is a chain of RNA nucleotides that are folded
into a hairpin shape and can bind to a specific
amino acid.
3. Transcription is the process by which genetic
information is copied from DNA to RNA.
4. A promoter is a region of DNA that marks the beginning
of the DNA chain that is to be transcribed.

1. c 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. d

1. RNA contains ribose; DNA contains deoxyribose.
RNA usually contains uracil in place of thymine.
In eukaryotes DNA is found only in the nucleus;
RNA is not.
2. mRNA is a single uncoiled chain. tRNA is a single
chain folded into a hairpin shape. rRNA is globular.
3. Information is transcribed from DNA into mRNA,
which moves through the pores of the nuclear
membrane into the cytosol.
4. The RNA sequence would be CGAUUAGGC.
5. RNA polymerase would not recognize the termination
signal and would continue to synthesize RNA
until it reached the termination signal. Thus, two
genes would probably be transcribed into a single
piece of RNA.

a, 3; b, 1; c, 5; d, 2; e, 4

Section 10-3
1. A codon is a combination of three mRNA
nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid.
2. Translation is the process of assembling polypeptides
from information encoded in mRNA.
3. An anticodon is a combination of three tRNA
nucleotides that pairs with a specific codon.

1. a 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. b

1. The anticodons are UAC, GUA, CGU, and UCA.
(The last three nucleotides in the mRNA sequence
are a stop codon, which has no anticodon.) The
polypeptide will initially contain four amino acids.
2. The tRNA that pairs with the start codon on
mRNA carries methionine.
3. Proteins synthesized on ribosomes attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum are exported from the cell,
whereas proteins synthesized on ribosomes that
are free in the cytosol are used inside the cell.
4. All of the codons from the deletion point to the
end of the transcript would be shifted by one
nucleotide, so the sequence of amino acids specified
from that point on would be different.
Translation would terminate prematurely if the
shift resulted in a new stop codon before the end
of the transcript.

a, polypeptide or protein; b, peptide bond;
c, amino acid; d, tRNA; e, anticodon; f, codon; g, mRNA
or transcript; h, ribosome
Section 11-1

1. A regulator gene is a prokaryotic gene that codes for
the production of a repressor protein, which inhibits
the transcription of one or more structural genes.
2. Binding of a repressor protein to an operator
blocks the transcription of one or more structural
genes; this blockage is called repression.
3. An inducer is a molecule that initiates prokaryotic
gene transcription by removing a repressor
protein, a process called activation.
4. A transcription factor is a protein that facilitates
gene transcription by binding to RNA polymerase
and to an enhancer.

1. c 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. d

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