Chapter 1 Psychology vocab

Topics: Scientific method, Psychology, Science Pages: 5 (1130 words) Published: November 24, 2013
Animal model
In research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior. Anthropomorphic error
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior. Barnum effect
The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms. Behaviorism
The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior. Biological perspective
The attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles. Case study
An in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person.
Clinical psychologist
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances. Coefficient of correlation
A statistical index ranging from –1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation. Control
Altering conditions that influence behavior.
Control group
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable. Correlation
The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables. Correlational study
A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables. Counseling psychologist
A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances. Counselor
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors. Critical thinking

An ability to reflect on, evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information. Cultural relativity
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs. Dependent variable
In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable. Description
In scientific research, the process of naming and classifying. Determinism
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one’s choices and actions if all such causes were known. Double-blind experiment
An arrangement in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of whether participants are in the experimental group or the control group, including who might have been administered a drug or a placebo. Experiment

A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principle. Experimental group
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition. Experimental method
Investigating causes of behavior through controlled experimentation. Extraneous variables
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment. Fallacy of positive instances
The tendency to remember or notice information that fits one’s expectations, while forgetting discrepancies. Free will
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions. Functionalism
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments. Gestalt psychology
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts. Humanism
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals. Hypothesis
The predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables. Independent variable
In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter. Introspection
To look within; to examine one’s own thoughts, feelings, or sensations....
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