CHANGING SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND MOBILITY
by Devendra Chandak
FEATURES OF INDIAN SOCIETY
RELIGIONS, CASTE AND CLASS IN INDIA
EDUCATION AND ECONOMY IN INDIAN SOCIETY
PART 1: FEATURES OF INDIAN SOCIETY
Rural Society: The village is the oldest permanent community of man. All early communities were basically rural in character. Bogardus says, “Human society has been cradled in the rural group”. The rural community is simply means a community that consists of people living in a limited physical area and who have common interests and common ways of satisfying them. Each society consists of different parts, such as individuals, groups, institutions, associations, and communities. The simplest analogy one can think of at this point is that of an organism that has different components working together as a whole. Society is a system like any other system, such as the solar system.
The major features of rural society are:
1. Small size of village community, 2. Intimate relations, 3. Jajmani System, 4. Isolation, 5. Social homogeneity, 6. Informal Social Control, 7. Dominance of Joint Family, 8. Status of Rural Women, 9. Occupation, 10. Role of neighborhood, 11. Faith in religion, 12. Self Sufficiency, 13. Widespread caste system, 14. Simplicity, 15. Feelings, 16. Fellow feelings, 17. Conservatism, 18. Observance of moral norms, 19. Poverty, 20. Illiteracy, 21. Desire for Independence, 22. Dominance of primary relations, 23. Social Homogeneity, 24. Occupations, 25. Preservers of the Ancient culture of the society, 26. Legal Self Government, 27. Change in the Villages.
Urban Society: As a result of development in science and technology, there has been industrial development. Due to industrial development there is urbanization as a result of which urban societies created. Every country has its own urban society. Every village possesses some elements of the city while every city carries some feature of the villages. Different criteria are used to decide a community as urban. Some of them are, for example, population, legal limits, types of occupations, social organizations. The city in the words of Louis wirth refers to “a relatively large, dense and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals.”
The Major Features of Urban Society are:
1. Social Heterogeneity, 2. Secondary Relations, 3. Anonymity, 4. Secondary Control, 5. Large-scale Division of Labour and Specialization, 6. Large-scale social mobility, 7. Individuation, 8. Voluntary Association, 9. Social Reference, 10. Unstable Family, 11. Special Segregation, 12. Lack of community feeling, 13. Lack of unity in family, 14. Moral Laxity, 15. Unbalanced personality, 16. High incidence of crime, 17. Social disorganization, 18. Peculiarities of marital life, 19. Dynamic life, 20. Voluntary associations are formed quickly, 21. Artificial life.
Forms of diversity in India
Unity implies oneness or a sense of we-ness; it holds tightly together the various relationships of ethnic groups or institutions in a dovetailed manner through the bonds of contrived structures, norms and values. The sources of diversity in India may be traced through a variety of ways, the most obvious being the ethnic origins, religions, castes, tribes, languages, social customs, cultural and sub cultural beliefs, political philosophies and ideologies, geographical variations etc.
A. Linguistic diversity
The high degree of large diversity found in India is due to the existence of diverse population groups. The greatest variety in languages can be found in the one of the biggest democracies...
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