Changing Behaviors to Benefit Health Outcomes
It is important to assess the willingness and ability of a patient to learn any new lifestyle or behavior changes of the patient who has or had an illness or condition, such as having had an MI. In the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences it states, “According to the (Health Behavior Model) HBM, people will perform a given (health) behavior if they themselves see that it will provide benefits according to their perception of their situation and needs”. (Assari, 2011, Volume 16). The HBM reports that there are four conditions a patient needs to believe to change his/her behavior: 1) that he/she is at risk for a reoccurrence of the condition, 2) that the consequences of the condition are serious, 3) that specific behavior changes will reduce his/her risks, and 4) that he/she can overcome the barriers to the behavior change. Knowing which condition(s) the patient believes can help the nurse to design appropriate teaching interventions. For example, if a patient does not know or understand his/her risk factors for a specific condition, then the nurse can teach him/her about his/her risk factors. If the patient understands his/her risk factors, but believes the behavior change is unachievable, the nurse can focus teaching on ways to help the patient overcome and manage his/her perceived barriers. For a post MI patient who perceives that improved diet and activity are unreachable or unmanageable goals to decrease his/her risk of consequences or/and reoccurrence of a MI, I could use the HBM to help change his/her beliefs to provide favorable changes in his/her behavior or lifestyle that will decrease his/her risks and improve overall health outcomes. Nursing diagnosis:
Altered perception of beliefs and risks related to having had a MI.
Provide teaching materials (literature, videos, etc…) that explains/shows that poor diet and inactivity are high risk factors for reoccurrence and...
References: Lifenurses, (2009). Nursing Care Plans for Myocardial Infarction (MI). Retrieved from http://www.lifenurses.com/nursing-care-plans-for-myocardial-infarction-mi/
Assari, S., (2011). Theory based health education: Application of health belief model for Iranian patients with myocardial infarction. Retrieved from http://journals.mui.ac.ir/jrms/article/view/7053/0
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