Through the inter-connection between change management, knowledge management and people management, the author believes you can look at, assess, and analyse organisational readiness and responsiveness to change. This will done through the narrative cyclical approach (FIGURE XX). All of this works together to answer the research question of, “Is there a framework/s that can be used to help organisations increase organisational readiness and responsiveness to change”. Organisational readiness and organisational responsiveness are addressed throughout this literature review. The determinants and impediments of change in each branch of change management have been considered and addressed. Some elements fall outside the scope of the literature review and research. The literature review is structured in such a way that echoes this integration as illustrated in the following diagram (Figure XX). Figure XX: Areas within and outside the research boundaries leading to organisational responsiveness to change. Figure XX: Areas within and outside the research boundaries leading to organisational responsiveness to change.
Change Management is neither an art nor a science; it is an individual process relying solely on the organisation, individuals within the organisation (employees), leadership style and management of the organisation (middle and top managers), organisational culture, and a variety of external influences including environmental, technological and social. The scope for change management within an organisation to fail is huge; however the scope for effectiveness is as wide if approached holistically. It is important to keep in mind that change management is not an art or a science but each area and issue of change management is completely individualistic. Many authors have written and researched within the academic area of change management, its uses, the expanse of theory both behind and encompassing it, its application, and how it can be applied strategically to assist the organisation. The work that these authors within the field of change management bring to the academic discussion have been studied, analysed, criticised and presented here in an attempt to both inform the reader and support the research and subsequent analysis. Organisational Dynamics
The concept of the ‘organisation’ is not abstract from the idea of systems theory. The organisation exists within an environment, has Inputs (I), Processes (P) and Outputs (O) taking into account both formal and informal subsystems and processes. Combined together this presents a system that is both effective and theoretically sound. “A system is an organised collection of parts interacting in certain ways to achieve certain goals. Any change in any part of the system will produce different effects” (Holbeche, 2006). As Holbeche (2006) identifies change can occur at an individual (I, P or O) level and see effective results, however the argument can also be constructed to assume that when change management is handled holistically, changing all the individual parts of the working cog model, a better result is often seen. Theory in this area is rather limited, however Senior and Swailes (2010) present the following illustration (Figure 10) which builds upon the work of Child (1973) focused on the intangible elements of organisational operations. “Systems thinking” is relevant to highlight here. Whilst it is possible for change to be approached from an individual (I, P or O) level, as well as a holistic stance, systems thinking looks at the concept of ‘does it need changing to enhance the overall level of organisational effectiveness’. An example that may be given here to help explain and contextualise this point is that of a maintenance...
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