Change Management and Organizational Culture

Topics: Culture, Organizational culture, Organization Pages: 9 (3242 words) Published: October 22, 2008
Concept of Culture2
What is Organizational Culture3
The Internet and Organizational Culture3
Cultural Change5
The Classical Approach to Cultural Description5
New Ways of Describing Culture6
Culture as Emergence7
Steps in Organizational Culture Change8
Managing Organization Cultural Change8

Concept of Culture
The concept of culture is complex and definitions of culture vary. The anthropologist Edward Tylor defined culture in the late 1800s as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and other capabilities acquired by a man as a member of a society” (Hill, 2005). More recently, Hofstede has defined culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group or category of people from another” (Hofstede, 1984). Furthermore, De Long & Fahey (2000) describe culture more generally as a system of values, norms, and practices that are shared among a group of people and that, when taken together, constitute a design for living. Values are ideas about what a group believes to be good, right and desirable. This is the deepest level of culture since values are often embedded in tacit preferences as well as they are difficult to articulate and change. Norms are derived from values and can be described as social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations. Therefore, they are more observable as well as easier to identify and change. Practices are the most visible symbols and manifestations of culture. They are a way of understanding any widely understood set of repetitive behaviors and they also include repeated types of interaction that have identifiable roles and social roles. In other words, values, norms and practices are fundamentally interrelated, since values are manifested in norms which in turn shape specific practices. (De Long & Fahey, 2000)

What is Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is the characteristic spirit and belief of an organization, demonstrated in the norms and values that are generally held about the way people should behave and treat one another, the nature of the working relationships that should be developed and the attitudes to change (Torrington & Hall, 1991). Like morale in the military, organizational culture is the great invisible force that decides the difference between success and failure and serves as the key to organizational change, productivity, effectiveness, control, innovation and communication (Feldman, 2002). The Internet and Organizational Culture

The lure of the Internet for many organizations is that it not only presents a low-cost strategy of delivering goods and services to the traditional markets of companies (Peterson, 1997) but also enables every organization to establish both a national and an international presence without the usual costs associated with such ventures (Lee, 2003). However, this technology has also led to a range of dilemmas for organizations especially those that are commonly described as traditional ‘bricks-and mortar’ firms (Kanter, 2001). Scholars have discussed the difficulties that organizations face in deciding whether to establish their Internet operations as separate businesses with distinct corporate identities or whether these activities should be integrated into existing businesses (Yakhlef, 2001). Furthermore, researchers have alluded to the potential implication that the Internet could have for competitive positioning, strategy making and managerial roles in organizations (Porter, 2001). Although much theoretical and practitioner discussion has been forwarded on various aspects of the Internet phenomenon, there is a surprising lack of research on the implications of this technology for managing people in general and for organizational culture in particular. However, a limited number of studies have provided some...

Bibliography: Anthony, P. D. (1990). The Paradox of Management of Culture. Personnel Review , 19 (4), 3-8.
Boddy, D., & Boonstra, A. (2000). Doing Business on the Internet: Managing the Organizational Issues. Journal of General Management , 26 (1), 18–35.
Child, J. (1984). Organization: A Guide To Problems and Practice. London: Harper & Row.
Dawson, P. (1994). Organisational Change: A Processual Approach. London: Chapman.
De Long, D. W., & Fahey, L. (2000). Diagnosing Cultural Barriers to Knowledge Management. Academy of Management Executive , Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 113-127.
Douglas, M. (1985). Introduction. In Rayner, L. G. Jonathan, & Steve, Measuring Culture: A Paradigm for the Analysis of Social Organization. New York: Columbia University Press.
Edwards, R. (1979). The Transformation of the Workplace in the Twentieth Century. London: Heinemann.
Feldman, S. (2002). Memory as a Moral Decision. London: Transaction Publishers.
Harrison, J. R., & Carrol, G. R. (1991). Keeping the Faith: A Model of Cultural Transmission in Formal Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly , 36, 552-582.
Hill, C. (2005). International Business – Competing in the Global Market Place. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. Sage, USA: Beverly Hills.
Kanter, R. M. (2001, January). The Ten Deadly Mistakes of Wanna-Dots. Harvard Business Review , 91–100.
Lebas, M. and J. Weigenstein. (1986). ‘Management Control: The Roles Of Rules, Markets and Culture '. Journal of Management Studies , Volume 23(3), pp. 259-273.
Lee, S. (2003). Business Use of Internet-Based Information Systems: The Case of Korea. European Journal of Information Systems , 12, 168_181.
Lewin, K. (1946). Research on Minority Problems. The Technology Review , 48 (3).
Martin, J. (1985). Can Organisational Culture be Managed? In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Louis, C. C. Lundburg, & J. Martin, Organisational Culture. London: Sage.
Martin, L. M., & Matlay, H. (2003). Innovative Use of the Internet in Established Small Firms. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal , 6 (1), 18-26.
McIvor, R. M. (2004). The Potential of Internet Technologies: Insights from the Public Sector. New Technology, Work and Employment , 19 (1), 63-75.
Peters, T., & Waterman, R. (1982). In Search of Excellence. New York: Random House.
Peterson, R. A. (1997). Exploring the Implications of the Internet for Consumer Marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science , 25 (4), 329–346.
Pettigrew, A. M. (1992). Shaping Strategic Change: Making Change in Large. London: Sage.
Porter, M. (2001, March). Strategy and the Internet. Harvard Business Review , 63–78.
Quinn, R. E. (1996). Becoming a Master Manager. New York: Wiley.
Ray, C. A. (1986). Corporate Culture: The Last Frontier of Control. Journal of Management Studies , 23 (3), 251-297.
Richard Seel. (2008, January 12). Culture & Complexity,. Retrieved May 8, 2008, from,:
Sathe, V
Seel, R. (2000). Culture & Complexity. Organisations & People , 7 (2), 2-9.
Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of Culture and Organisational Analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly , 28, 339-358.
Susan M. Heathfield. (n.d.). How to change your culture. Retrieved May 10, 2008, from
Thomas Group inc
Torrington, D., & Hall, L. (1991). Personnel Management: A New Approach (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.
Wilkins, A. L., & Patterson, K. J. (1985). You Can’t Get There From Here: What Will Make Culture-Change Projects Fail. Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture , 262-291.
Willmott, H. (1993). Strength is Ignorance: Slavery is Freedom: Managing Culture in Modern Organizations. Journal of Management Studies , 30 (4), 515-551.
Yakhlef, A. (2001). Does the Internet Compete with or Complement Bricks-and-Mortar Bank. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management , 6, 272–281.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Organizational Culture Essay
  • Essay on organizational culture
  • Organizational culture Research Paper
  • organizational change management Essay
  • Essay about Organizational Change
  • Organizational Change Essay
  • Essay about Bringing a Change in Organizational Culture
  • Organizational Culture and Change Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free