Metals and Non-Metals

Topics: Ion, Chlorine, Sodium chloride, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Oxide / Pages: 11 (2553 words) / Published: Feb 3rd, 2014
Metals and Non-metals
Elements are divided mainly into two groups on the basis of physical and chemical properties – Metal and Non-metal.
Metals: Part - I
Physical Properties of Metals:-
Hardness:- Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. Sodium, potassium, lithium etc. are very soft metals, these can be cut using knife.
Strength:- Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this big structures are made using metals, such as copper and iron.
State:- Metals are solid at room temperature except mercury.
Lusture:- Metals are lustrous i.e. they are shiny in appearance. This is the cause that metals like gold, silver and platinum are used to make jewellery.
Sound:- Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called sonorous. Sound of metals is also known as metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are used in making musical instruments.
Conduction:- Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This is the cause that electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminium.
Malleability:- Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into thin sheet. Because of this property iron is used in making big ships.
Ductility:- Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire. Because of this property wires are made of metals.
Melting and boiling point:- Metals have generally high melting and boiling points.
Density:- Most of the metals have high density.
Color:- Most of the metals are grey in color. But gold and copper are exceptions.
Chemical Properties of Metals: Part-I
Reaction with oxygen:-
Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when react with oxygen.

(1) Reaction of potassium with oxygen:- Potassium metal forms potassium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

(2) Reaction of sodium with oxygen:- Sodium metal forms sodium

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