Acids,Bases and Salts

Topics: Acid, Hydrochloric acid, PH Pages: 16 (4287 words) Published: February 3, 2014
 Acid Base And Salt Acid
Acids:- The word ‘Acid’ came from Latin word ‘Acidus or Acere’ which means sour. Sour taste is the most common characteristic of acid. Acid turns blue litmus paper red. There are many substances which contain acid and hence taste sour, such as curd, tamarind, lemon, etc. Types of Acids:- Acids are divided into two types on the basis of their occurrence – Natural acids and Mineral acids. Natural Acid:- Acids which are obtained from natural sources are called natural acid or organic acid. Some common organic acid their and natural source

Name of Acid
Source
Acetic acid
Vinegar
Ascorbic acid
Amla

Guava
Citric acid
Lemon

Orange

Other citrus food
Lactic acid
Sour milk
 
Curd
Methanoic acid
Ant sting

Nettle sting
Oxalic acid
Tomato
Tartaric acid
Tamarind
Mineral Acids:- Acids that prepare from mineral are known as mineral acids, inorganic acids, man-made acids or synthetic acid, such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, etc. Chemical Properties of Acid

Reaction of acids with metal:
Acids give hydrogen gas along with respective salt when they react with a metal.

Example:-
Hydrogen gas and zinc chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc metal.

Hydrogen gas and sodium chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium metal.

Hydrogen gas and iron chloride are formed when hydrochloric acid reacts with iron.

Hydrogen gas and zinc sulphate are formed when zinc metal reacts with sulphuric acid

Test for hydrogen gas:
The gas evolved after reaction of acid with metal can be tested by bringing a lighted candle near it. If the gas burns with pop sound, then it confirms the evolution of hydrogen gas. Burning with pop sound is the characteristic test for hydrogen gas. Reaction of acids with metal carbonate:

Acids give carbon dioxide gas and respective salts along with water when they react with metal carbonates.

Examples:
Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide gas, sodium chloride along with water when reacts with sodium carbonate.

Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide, magnesium chloride and water when it reacts with magnesium carbonate.

Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide gas, calcium chloride and water when it reacts with calcium carbonate.

Sulphuric acid gives calcium sulphate, carbon dioxide gas, calcium sulphate and water when it reacts with calcium carbonate.

Sulphuric acid gives sodium sulphate, carbon dioxide gas and water when it reacts with sodium carbonate.

Nitric acid gives sodium nitrate, water and carbon dioxide gas when it reacts with sodium carbonate.

Reaction of acid with hydrogen carbonates (bicarbonates):
Acids give carbon dioxide gas, respective salt and water when they react with metal hydrogen carbonate.

Examples:
Hydrochloric acid gives carbon dioxide, sodium chloride and water when it reacts with sodium bicarbonate.

Sulphuric acid gives sodium sulphate, carbon dioxide gas and water when it reacts with sodium bicarbonate.

Sodium bicarbonate is also known as sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda, baking powder, bread soda and bicarbonate of soda. Test for evolution of carbon dioxide gas:
Carbon dioxide turns lime water milky when passed through it. This is the characteristic test for carbon dioxide gas. The gas evolved because of reaction of acid with metal carbonate or metal hydrogen carbonate turns lime water milky. This shows that the gas is carbon dioxide gas. This happens because of formation of white precipitate of calcium carbonate.

But when excess of carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it makes milky colour of lime water disappear. This happens because of formation of calcium hydrogen carbonate. As calcium hydrogen carbonate is soluble in water, thus the milky colour of solution mixture disappears. Reaction of acid with marble and egg...
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