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Challenges and Changes in the Movement

By xinjiang Apr 13, 2013 616 Words
Dillon Liu 1/20/2013 Section3: Challenges and Changes in the Movement
1) de facto segregation
Racial segregation established by practice and custom, not by law. African American faced this problem in the North. 2) de jure segregation
Racial segregation established by law.
3) Malcolm X
One African American leader who urged their followers to take complete control of their communities, livelihoods, and culture. He was a Muslims who developed a philosophy of black superiority and separatism from whites. 4) Nation of Islam

A religious group, popularly known as the black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion. 5) Stokely Carmichael
The SNCC leader who decided to lead their followers in a mach to finish the walk from the Tennessee border to Jackson. Though he was arrested , he electrified the crowd by issuing the concept of Black Power which focused on developing African-American pride. 6) Black Power

A slogan used by Stokely Carmichael in the 1960s that encouraged African-American pride and political and social leadership. 7) Black Panthers
A militant African-American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto. 8) Kerner Commission
A group that was appointed by president Johnson to study the causes of urban violence and that recommended the elimination of de facto segregation in American society. 9) Civil rights Act of 1968
A law that banned discrimination in housing.
10) affirmative action
A police that seeks to correct the effects of past discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged.

July 1964: In New York city, an encounter between white police and African-American teenagers ended in the death of a 15-year-old student. This sparked a race riot in central Harlem.

February 1965: Malcolm X was shot and killed while giving a speech in Harlem because of his split with the black Muslims.

August 1965: After president Johnson signed te Voting Rights Act into law, on of the worst race riots in the nation’s history raged through the streets of Watts, a predominantly African-American neighborhood in Los Angles. 34 People were killed, and hundreds of millions of dollars worth of property was destroyed.

October 1966: A political party known as the Black Panthers was founded to fight police brutality in the ghetto. It advocated self sufficiency for African-American communities, as well as full employment and decent housing.

April 1968z: Martin Luther King was assassinated.

Malcolm X, an African-American Muslim, developed a philosophy of black superiority and separatism from whites, including the famous “Ballots or Bullets”. The Muslim organization formed by him had a radical attitude toward whites. In1966, the political party known as the Black Panthers fought police brutality in the ghetto. What’s more, the black power along with many others’ philosophy of violent protests contributed in the outbreak of violence. In urban area, living condition, working, educational condition are very poor, which gains backlash against white racist. The death of civil rights leader King and the difficult in dispelling de facto segregation in the North also cause violence.

I think Martin Luther king, Jr. has a better strategies. He urged that the Africa-American should have the equal civil rights as the white and more opportunities in education and jobs. He preached racial equality and fighting it with nonviolence. It isn’t good to provoke African American s to violence and antagonize whites, because it would loss more lives and provoke white people as well. His demonstrations on how African Americans live in a miserable, menial life so that it help the Congress to pass the civil rights law.

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