11. List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the procedure and logic of each.

1. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations.

It is useful to restate the research question in terms of populations.

2. Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution.

The overall logic of hypothesis testing involves figuring out the probability of getting a particular result if the null hypothesis is true. So, you need to know what the situation would be if the null hypothesis were true. The comparison distribution is the distribution that represents the population situation if the null hypothesis is true.

3. Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected.

Before conducting a study, researchers set a target against which they will compare their result: how extreme a sample score they would need to decide against the null hypothesis, that is, how extreme the sample score would have to be for it to be too unlikely that they could get such an extreme score if the null hypothesis were true. This is called the cutoff sample score. 4. Determine your sample’s score on the comparison distribution.

This step is to get the actual results for the sample. Once you have the results for your sample you figure the Z score for the sample’s raw score. 5. Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis.

Compare the sample’s Z score to the cutoff Z score and decide whether to reject the null hypothesis.

14. Study Sample Score p Tails of Test A 5 1 7 .05 1 (high predicted) B 5 1 7 .05 2 C 5 1 7 .01 1 (high predicted) D 5 1 7 .01