CH 2 EDITED BIO

Topics: Brain, Nervous system, Neuron Pages: 41 (1942 words) Published: December 5, 2014
Chapter Two
Neuroscience
and
Biological
Foundations

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mythbusters: True or False?
① Our brains are hardwired
and cannot be rewired.
② Most people are either leftbrained or right-brained.
③ When we learn something
new our brain becomes
more wrinkled.
④ We generally use only 10
percent of our, brain.
⑤ Brain damage is always
permanent.

⑥ The human brain is the
largest in the animal
kingdom.
⑦ People remain conscious
several minutes after
decapitation.
⑧ You can get holes in your
brain from drug use.
⑨ Alcohol kills brain cells.
⑩ If a trait is heritable, that
means it can’t be changed.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

OUR GENETIC INHERITANCE

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Behavioral Genetics: Hereditary
Code
Behavioral
Genetics
The study of the
relative effects of
genetic and
environmental
influences on
behavior and
mental processes

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

How Do Genes Work?
Dominant Genes

Polygenetic Traits

If you inherit a
dominant gene for a
trait from ONE parent,
then that trait will be
Recessive Genes
expressed.
Recessive genes for a
trait are only
expressed if you
inherit TWO of them
(one from each
parent).
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Traits that are
controlled by multiple
genes and often are
affected by
environmental and
social factors.

Methods for Studying Heritability
Twin Studies
 Monozygotic (identical) twins share
100 percent of their genes.
 Dizygotic (fraternal) twins share 50
percent of their genes.
 And, often, the twins are raised in
the same environment.

 If there is a genetic contribution to
a behavior/mental process, then
monozygotic twins should be
MORE alike than dizygotic twins.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Methods for Studying Heritability
Family Studies, pay close attention to this when you do your bio personality assignment

If a specific trait is inherited,
biological relatives should show
increased trait similarity,
compared to unrelated people.
Closer relatives, like siblings,
should show more similarity
than distant relatives.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Methods for Studying Heritability
Adoption Studies
If adopted children are MORE
like their biological parents, then
genetic factors have a greater
influence on that trait.
If adopted children are MORE
like their adoptive parents, then
environmental factors have a
greater influence on that trait.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Misconceptions about Genetics
Genetic traits are not
fixed/inflexible

Lifestyle and
environmental factors
can influence whether
genes become
expressed.

Heritability estimates do not apply to individuals

Estimates (e.g., a
particular trait is 50
percent heritable)
only apply to
populations and not
individuals.

Genes and environment are inseparable

Because genes and
environment affect
each other, it is
impossible to
separate their
influences.

Biology is NOT destiny!
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology

Natural Selection

A subfield of psychology studying
how natural selection and adaptation
help explain behavior and mental
processes

The driving mechanism behind
evolution, which allows individuals
with genetically influenced traits that
are adaptive in a particular
environment to stay alive and
reproduce – which helps the genome
to survive into the next generation

It suggests that behavioral
commonalities among human
populations, from eating to fighting
with our enemies, emerged and
remain in human populations
because they helped our ancestors
survive.

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

NEURAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR...
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