GAAP for zero-interest-bearing note
Wie Company has been operating for just 2 years, producing specialty golf equipment for women golfers. To date, the company has been able to finance its successful operations with investments from its principal owner, Michelle Wie, and cash flows from operations. However, current expansion plans will require some borrowing to expand the company's production line. As part of the expansion plan, Wie will acquire some used equipment by signing a zero-interest-bearing note. The note has a maturity value of $50,000 and matures in 5 years. A reliable fair value measure for the equipment is not available, given the age and specialty nature of the equipment. As a result, Wie's accounting staff is unable to determine an established exchange price for recording the equipment (nor the interest rate to be used to record interest expense on the long-term note). They have asked you to conduct some account research on this topic. (a) Identify the authoritative literature that provides guidance on the zero-interest-bearing note. Use some of the examples to explain how the standard applies in this setting.
(b) How is present value determined when an established exchange price is not determinable and a note has no ready market? What is the resulting interest rate often called?
(c) Where should a discount or premium appear in the financial statements? What about issue costs?
This work requires that you consider the fair value of the note on the seller's books (note receivable). Portion of the codification are cut and pasted into the document for you. There are two pieces of purchasing an asset with a note. The asset value and the value of the note. Here, the asset value is not known. Below it discusses that if you don't know the value of the asset, you use the value of what was exchanged for it. Quotes from Codification
845 Nonmonetary Transactions
30 Initial Measurement 30-8 Fair value should be regarded as not determinable within reasonable limits if major uncertainties exist about the realizability of the value that would be assigned to an asset received in a nonmonetary transaction accounted for at fair value. An exchange involving parties with essentially opposing interests is not considered a prerequisite to determining a fair value of a nonmonetary asset transferred; nor does an exchange ensure that a fair value for accounting purposes can be ascertained within reasonable limits. If neither the fair value of a nonmonetary asset transferred nor the fair value of a nonmonetary asset received in exchange is determinable within reasonable limits, the recorded amount of the nonmonetary asset transferred from the entity may be the only available measure of the transaction.
30 Initial Measurement
Certain Receivables 30-1 The following provides initial measurement guidance for certain notes receivable, specifically those exchanged for cash and those exchanged for property, goods, or services. Such notes may be originated by an entity or purchased from a third party. 30-3 As indicated in paragraph 835-30-25-8, notes exchanged for property, goods, or services are valued and accounted for at the present value of the consideration exchanged between the contracting parties at the date of the transaction in a manner similar to that followed for a cash transaction. 30-5 As indicated in paragraph 835-30-25-10, in circumstances where interest is not stated, the stated amount is unreasonable, or the stated face amount of the note is materially different from the current cash sales price for the same or similar items or from the market value of the note at the date of the transaction, the note, the sales price, and the cost of the property, goods, or services exchanged for the note shall be recorded at the fair value of the property, goods, or services or at an amount that reasonably approximates the market value of...
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