Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical
Engineering Science http://pic.sagepub.com/ A Study of Turbulent Flows in Pipe Bends
W N Al-Rafai, Y D Tridimas and N H Woolley
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 1990 204:
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A study of turbulent flows in pipe bends
W N Al-Rafai, BEng, AMIMechE, Y D Tridimas, BSc, MA, PhD and N H Woolley, BSc, MSc, PhD
School of Engineering and Technology Management, Liverpool Polytechnic
An experimental and numerical study oj turbulent air flow in circular section pipe bends was carried out in order to determine the f influence o bend curvature on theflow.
Two bends were used, with inside diameters o 43 mm and curvature ratios o 1 :13.95 and I :6.98. The corresponding Dean numbers f f were 9138 and 12 919. The Reynolds number for both cases was 34 132.
Measurements o mean streamwise and r.m.s. velocities were made using laser Doppler anemmetry. Numerical modelling was based on f the commercial computer package 'PHOENICS', employing a k-& turbulence model, standard wall functions and a