Program Bachelor of Biomedical Sciences (HONS)
Module Name: Basic Cytology
Module Code: BMC224
Title of Assignment: Cervical Cancer
Student’s Name: LIM ZHEN KIAN
Matrix Number: BBSH 13091436
Study Year: 1
Submission Date: 2 June 2014
Table of Content
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Yet, because of poor access to screening and treatment services, the vast majority of deaths occur in women living in low and middle income countries. Cervical cancer develops in the thin layer of cells called the epithelium, which cover the cervix. Cells found in this tissue have different shapes such as squamous cells, columnar cells and mixed carcinomas. Cervical cancer usually begins slowly with precancerous abnormalities, and even if cancer develops, it generally progresses very gradually. Cervical cancer is the most preventable type of cancer and is very treatable in its early stages. Regular Pap tests and human Papilloma Virus (HPV) screening can help detect this disease early. Dysplasia is a term that refers to a precancerous condition. It may become cancerous, but not always. In the case of cervical cancer, dysplasia indicates that the layer of cells that covers the cervix (squamous epithelial cells) is abnormal in size and shape and is beginning to grow. However, the cells are still confined to the surface (epithelial layer). These types of changes are generally first noted in the results of a Pap smear.
The American Cancer Society's estimates for cervical cancer in the United States are for 2014 which are about 12360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed and 4020 women will die from cervical cancer.
Some researchers estimate that non-invasive cervical cancer occurs about 4 times more often than invasive cervical cancer. Cervical cancer was once one of the most common causes of cancer death for American women. Then, between 1955 and 1992, the cervical cancer death rate declined by almost 70%. The main reason for this change was the increased use of the Pap test. This screening procedure can find changes in the cervix before cancer develops. It can also find cervical cancer early − in its most curable stage. The death rate from cervical cancer has been stable in recent years. Cervical cancer tends to occur in midlife. Most cases are found in women younger than 50. It rarely develops in women younger than 20. Many older women do not realize that the risk of developing cervical cancer is still present as they age. More than 20% of cases of cervical cancer are found in women over 65. However these cancers rarely occur in women who have been getting regular tests to screen for cervical cancer before they were 65. In the United States, Hispanic women are most likely to get cervical cancer, followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites. American Indians and Alaskan natives have the lowest risk of cervical cancer in this country.
Estimated Cervical Cancer Cases/Deaths Worldwide
South Central Asia
More Developed Countries
Less Developed Countries
Source: J. Ferlay, F. Bray, P. Pisani and D.M. Parkin. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer Incidence,...
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