Language Related Assignment
Adrian Nicholas Crouch
Date: 01.01.2011 Word Count:1,740 PASS
1. The plane leaves at 10.00 tomorrow. Form Present tense referring to the future + time marker. definite article + subject + verb in the present simple tense + preposition + time marker
Function/meaning Statement of fact/future action set by timetable or schedule. Context Someone who has arranged a holiday abroad and is confirming travel arrangements for the following day with a family member.
Concept Questions Is he going today? No. When is he going? Tomorrow. The future. Can he change the time the plane leaves? No, because the plane is scheduled by the airline to leave at 10.00 tomorrow. Target Models The taxi comes at 08.00 tomorrow. The plane lands at 12.45 tomorrow. The hire car arrives at 13.30 tomorrow. The flight desk opens at 09.00 tomorrow. Anticipated learner problems o Students may omit the addition of -s in forming present simple tense of verb. o Students may be confused and add –ing to the verb. o Students may add the nominative pronoun it after the noun. o Students may have difficulty understanding that we are speaking of the future. o Some students (e.g. Spanish speakers) may have problems pronouncing the letter v as these speakers often pronounce v as b.
Typically described as adverb or time clauses the following three sentences demonstrate the relationship between action and time. Context Towards the end of a school day, a fire alarm bell rings in three classrooms, (Room 1 which is empty, Room 2 where students are studying & Room 3 where students are in the act of leaving) to signal for students to vacate their classrooms.
2a. The students had left when the bell rang is an example of the simple past perfect tense and tells us that the students in Room 1 had already left their classroom before the fire alarm bell rang. 'We use past perfect when already talking about the past, and want to talk about an earlier past'. Swan ( 2005)
Earlier past Past
students in Room 1 left
Form definite article + subject + verb to have in the past tense + past participle + adverb + definite article + object + verb in the past tense
F U Concept Questions T Were the students still in Room 1 when the bell rang? No, they had already left. U Did the students in Room 1 hear the bell ring? No, they were not in the classroom when the bell rang. R Were students still at their desks in Room 1 when the bell rang? No, the classroom was empty when the E bell rang.
Target Models The class had finished when the bell rang. The students had gone when the bell rang. The lesson had ended when the bell rang. 2b. The students left when the bell rang is an example of the past simple and tells us that the students in Room 2 left the classroom at the moment the bell rang, at some time in the past.
single action in past
bell rang & students in Room 2 left
Form definite article + subject + verb in past tense + adverb + definite article + object + verb in past tense
Concept Questions Was Room 2 empty when the bell rang? No, students were still in their classrooms. Were students studying in Room 2 when the bell rang? Yes, the fire alarm bell signalled for them to stop study and to leave. What made the students leave? They heard the fire alarm bell ring. Target Models The lesson ended when the bell rang. The class finished when the bell rang. The students stopped working when the bell rang.
2c. The students were leaving when the bell rang is an example of the past continuous together with the past simple and tells us that the students in Room 3 were already in the act of leaving their classroom when the bell rang, again at some point in the past. According to Swan (2005) (the past progressive (were leaving) refers to a background action or situation whilst the simple past (bell rang) refers to a shorter action or event that...
References: Swan. M. (2005) Practical English Usage. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. Swan. M. Walter. C. (2009) How English Works. Oxford University Press.
Bibliography http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk http://esl.about.com http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com http://conjugation.com http://dictionary.reference.com
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