1. She needn’t have got up so early.
Meaning: Needn’t is short for need not.
This action happened in the past. She got up early but it wasn’t necessary.
Mary has a job interview tomorrow and she was feeling very nervous. The next day Mary woke up early to catch the 9am bus to her interview location. However she had forgotten that the interview was at 3pm. It was not necessary for Mary to get up so early. As a result she waited for several hours in a café.
Did Mary wake up early? (yes)
What time was her interview at? (3pm)
Was it necessary to get up early? (no)
Tell me about a time when you were too early for something and had to wait.
She+ needn’t have got up
Subject +need not+ have +verb (past participle)
Pronunciation: /niː.dənt/: needn’t (2 syllables with stress on the first) have (weak form) /əv/
2. I didn’t mean to break it.
I felt bad that I broke it but I didn’t do it on purpose.
I didn’t want to break it. It was an accident. Context
I was playing with my brother’s new toy. Then I fell and dropped my brother’s toy. I was afraid my brother would get angry at me but it was an accident. I didn’t want to break it.
Did I want to break the new toy? (no)
How did I feel? Why? (sad, bad, scared)
Tell me a time when you didn’t mean to break something? How did you feel?
I + didn’t + mean + to break
Subject + did not + verb +infinitive form of verb
Pronunciation: didn’t /ˈdɪd.ənt/ (2 syllables – stress on first) mean to: (weak form) /tʊ/
3. My brother is very ambitious.
Meaning: Ambitious is an adjective form. The context describes my brother as very ambitious because he has a strong desire to be successful and rich.
My brother studies all day and night in college. Sometimes he works so hard he has no free time. His dream is to become a successful architect. After college he plans to open a big architectural firm and make it the best in the world. He says this will make him a rich man.
Does my brother study very hard? (yes)
What is his dream job? (Architect)
What does he plan to do after college? Why? (to open a big firm and be rich)
Adjective (Adjectives are often called “describing words” because the provide information about the qualities of something described in a noun). [i]
Pronunciation: ambitious (3 syllables-stress on the 2nd) /æmˈbɪʃ.əs/
4. I wish I’d gone to the party.
Meaning: “I wish” is used with the past perfect tense to express that I am sad or regretful about a particular action in the past that happened. So I wish I had gone to the party. I am feeling sorry for myself now that I didn’t go.
I was invited to a birthday party last week. I really wanted to go but I had to work that night. I heard it was a great party but I had to go to work to pay my bills.
Is the party in the past, present or future? (past)
Did I go to the party? (no)
How do I feel about my decisions? (unhappy, sorry, regret it)
I wish I’d gone
Subject + wish + had+ (past participle) past perfect)
now (wishing I had gone)
Pronunciation: I wish: /wɪʃ/ I’d: /aɪd/ (1 syllable) I’d gone (stress on wish and gone) I’d (weak sound)
5. I told her off.
Meaning: This is a phrasal verb to speak angrily to someone because they have done or said something wrong.
The teacher was very angry when he saw one of his students cheating during the exam. The teacher quickly took her out of the classroom. He was so mad he began shouting at her. She wasn’t allowed to continue the exam so she left.
Did the student do something wrong? (Cheat in exam)
Please join StudyMode to read the full document