By: Ethan Barnett
Cellular Energetics is the broad term that encompasses both cellular respiration and photosynthesis and refers to how energy changes and reacts within cells. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down sugars (ATP) in order to produce energy for other chemical reactions. Cellular respiration takes place mainly in the mitochondria and the reactants in this process are oxygen and glucose and the main product in this process is ATP as well as waste products which include carbon dioxide and water. Almost all organisms perform cellular respiration. There are two types of cellular respiration …show more content…
Cellular respiration includes the processes of glycolysis, krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis is used to convert glucose to produce two pyruvate as well as 4 ATP’s and 2 NADH but uses 2 ATP to have a net product of 2 ATP and 2 NADH. The krebs cycle converts pyruvate to Acetyl CoA, which produces 2 ATP,8 NADH, and 2 FADH’s per glucose molecule. Electron transport Chain is the last and most important step of cellular respiration, it makes ATP with the movement of electrons from high energy to low energy that makes a proton gradient which makes ATP, this cannot occur unless oxygen is present. Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which converts sugars into acids, alcohol, or alcohol. This process occurs in yeast and bacteria as well as muscle cells that have no oxygen left. In yeast fermentation produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide from glucose and fructose. Fermentation in bacteria cells the process of fermentation produces ethanol, while in human muscle cells fermentation produces lactic acid in cells that have a short …show more content…
The carbohydrate with the highest rate of cellular respiration was glucose followed by fructose, honey, sucrose. Lactose, galactose, and water all had the same final rate of cellular respiration. Figure 1. The rate of cellular respiration over time in the carbohydrate compounds glucose, fructose, lactose, galactose, sucrose, honey, and water. The final absorbance rates for glucose was 1.8, fructose 1.7, lactose 0.6, galactose 0.6, sucrose 1.5, honey 1.6, and water 0.6.
In the second experiment we measured the rate of photosynthesis through different colored light filters, the results were for the most part as expected, but a bit off due to human error. The color with the highest rate of photosynthesis through the production of oxygen was the clear (control), next was red, then blue, and finally green. These results are somewhat the expected outcome for the different colors, although not exactly.
Figure 2. The rate of photosynthesis in elodea plants with different color light filters which include clear, red, blue, and green. The color that produced the highest rate of photosynthesis was clear at .48, then red at .28, and finally green at