Cellular Respiration – general reaction equation, 4 stages of glucose metabolism
Know structure/functions of mitochondria and where the 4 stages occur
Know starting materials and final products of all four pathways
Know how much ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are made in each stage starting with
1 glucose molecule Know what is meant by an electron transport chain and how it is used to make ATP (sets up a proton gradient. . .)
Know the figures I titled as ‘Know this’!!
Structures to know: glucose, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, ADP/ATP, and
Enzymes to know (substrates and products): hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, ATP synthase
Anaerobic metabolism- who, what, why, 2 methods, how is NADH handled?
Concept of secondary metabolism, uses and examples of the four major groups- phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyketides
Chapter 8 Autotrophs vs. heterotrophs; general equation for photosynthesis Know structure/functions of cholorplasts and chlorophyll What are the two phases of photosynthesis, where do they take place, what is used and what is produced General properties of light energy and how do plants harness it to make energy(electrons!!) Photosystem II and PSI – what is happening (electron transport chain, proton gradient, etc) how do plants use this to make ATP PSII makes oxygen gas, PSI makes NADPH Mitochondria vs. chloroplasts – similarities, evolutionary connections, etc Calvin cycle – who, what, how; starting material (CO2) Know RuPB and rubisco; know what compound is turned into sugars (G3P); To make 1 G3P takes 3 CO2 + 9 ATP + 6 NADPH
Chapter 9 Signal transduction – who, what, why; Know the 5 methods of cell communication 3 stages of cell signaling General properties of ligands
Know the three types of membrane receptor proteins and how they function; also know about nuclear receptors and how they function What is meant by a signal transduction pathway? What are second messengers and know about cAMP as an example; what receptors use cAMP, why is cAMP a good second messenger What ultimately determines a cell’s response to an extracellular signal?
How can two different cells respond differently to the same ligand (norephinephrine example from class)
Chapter 11 4 properties of ‘genetic material’; Transformation principle and S vs. R strains of bacteria Know the general history behind how the structure of DNA was determined by Watson and Crick DNA vs. RNA – structure, components, differences How is a strand of DNA put together – sugar: phosphate bonds form the rails, bases are hydrogen bonded together to form the steps; Chargaff’s rule; stands are complementary and anti-parallel (one is 5’3’, one is 3’5’) How is DNA replicated (copied); Know all enzymes and steps that occur at the replication fork; Know summary slide!! Telomeres and telomerase; What’s the problem with the ends of chromosomes? How are telomeres involved with aging and cancer?
What is a gene and what is gene expression? Parts of a gene and their functions promoter, regulatory sequences, start and
Stop signals, coding region
Why study mutants? (Why cherish your mutants?) alkaptonuria as an example
Concept of 1 gene – 1 enzyme 1 gene – 1 protein 1 gene – many proteins
The central dogma of biology: DNA mRNA Protein
Transcription: who, what, where, how; 3 phases (initiation, elongation, termination) Important player RNA polymerase and its functioning Differences between DNA sequence and RNA sequence (T becomes U) RNA processing introns vs. exons, alternative splicing, 5’cap and 3’ tail
Translation: who, what, where, how; 3 phases Protein basics: amino acids polypeptide mature protein The Genetic Code, codons, degenerate code, start codon (ATG or AUG) tRNA: how and why it is the ‘translator’, structure, anticodon, acceptor stem, a charged tRNA Ribosomes: structure, 2 subunits, rRNA + proteins, functions in translation, 3
Sites (A, P, & E) and how tRNAs move through the ribosome