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Cells eukaryotic vs prokariotic

By luciia_g Feb 25, 2014 372 Words
UNIT 1 BIOLOGY

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Without a defined nucleus. No nuclear envelope (the genetic material is not separated from the rest of the cell) Clearly differentiated nucleus with a nuclear envelope, which protects the genetic material. Without organelles (only ribosomes)

Presence of membrane-bound organelles
Smaller in size
Types: plant and animal

ANIMAL CELLS

PLANT CELLS
Cell walls absent
Cell walls made of cellulose
Chloroplast never present
Chloroplast present
Centrioles present
Centrioles absent
Variety of shapes
Regular shapes
Small vacuoles throughout the cytoplasm
Often one large central vacuole
Nucleus anywhere but often in the centre
Nucleus at the edge of the cell
Heterotrophic nutrition
Autotrophic nutrition

STRUCTURE

FUNCTION
Endoplasmic reticulum
Rough: transports the proteins synthetised by the ribosomes

Smooth: synthetise and transport lipids
Ribosomes
Synthetise proteins
Golgi apparatus
Collects and distributes the substances synthetised in the cell Centrioles
Direct the movement of the cilia and flagella. Responsible for delivering genetic material during cell division Vacuoles
Store different substances
Mitochondria
Produce energy through cell respiration
Lysosomes
They carry out the digestion of large molecules or old organelles Cytoskeleton
Maintain the shape of the cell and are involved in organelle movement and cell division

DEFINITIONS

BIOTIC: related to living things.

ABIOTIC: related to non-living things.

MOLECULE: smallest unit that a substance can be divided into.

MEMBRANE: a thin layer that separates the cell from the external environment.

GENETIC MATERIAL: is made up of molecules and contains information necessary to control the cell.

CYTOPLASM: it is the semi-liquid interior of the cell.

NUTRITION: the cell takes molecules from the external environment and transforms them into energy. This process is called metabolism.

INTERACTION: it allows a cell to communicate with the external environment. There are two types of actions to interact, receiving information and responding appropriately to this information.

REPRODUCTION: consists of the formation of new cells from existing ones.

ORGANELLE: specialised structure found in an eukaryotic cell that carries out a specific function.

CENTROSOME: area in the cell where small tubes called microtubules are produced; in animal cells they contain the centrioles.

CHLOROPLAST: organelle in plant cells where photosynthesis takes place.

CHROMATIN: genetic material that chromosomes are formed from.

NUCLEOLUS: spherical structure which is involved in the synthesis of ribosomes.

NUCLEOPLASM: liquid similar to cytoplasm.

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