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# Cell Structure Work

Topics: Cell, Eukaryote, Organelle, Bacteria, DNA / Pages: 5 (750 words) / Published: Mar 26th, 2015
Units of measurement

1) Complete the diagram below to show: names of the units of measurement, unit symbols, mathematical operations for converting between units.

2) Complete the table below to show the corresponding value nanometres, micrometres and millimetres for the measurements given in each row. The first row has been completed for you. Ensure that your answers use the correct unit symbols.

Nanometre
Micrometre
Millimetre
5
0.005
0.000005
1

1

1

3

7

0.5

3) When studying cells structure using a microscope the smallest unit of measurement commonly used to describe findings is the nanometre. Explain why.

Magnification and Resolution

1) Define the following terms:

Magnification:

Resolution:

2) Visible light has a wavelength of 400-700 nm. Calculate the best resolution achievable with a light microscope? Show your working out:

3) If the electron gun produces an electron beam with 2 nm wavelength, what is the best resolution achievable?

Calculating total Magnification of a compound light microscope

Calculating Cell Magnification from images

The diagram below shows the general structure of an animal cell as seen under an electron microscope.

_________
5m

1) Calculate the magnification factor of the diagram

2) Calculate the length of structure G

3) Calculate the diameter of the nucleolus (structure B)

4) Calculate the diameter of the nucleus

5) Calculate the diameter of the cell at its widest point

The diagram below shows the general structure of a plant cell when viewed under and electron microscope.

___________ 40m
1) Calculate the magnification factor of the diagram

2) Calculate the thickness of the cellulose cell wall.

3) Calculate the length of the cell.

4) Calculate the length of structure C.

5) Calculate the length of the vacuole.

Identifying organelles from micrographs

1) (a) Name the large round organelle in the micrograph below
(b) Is it found in animal or plant cells
(c)Name the structures A,B and C

2) (a) Name the large organelle shown in the micrograph below
(b)Is it found in animal or plant cells?
(c) Suggest what structure D could be

3) (a) Name the organelle shown in the micrograph below

(b) State the role of the organelle

4) Name the structures visible in the transmission electron micrographs below

Test yourself on a full cell micrograph

Is this an animal or plant cell? Can you name the structure 1-4

Use the word bank at the bottom of the page to label this plant cell

Parts of the cell working together

Complete the paragraph below to describe how organelles in a cell work together to produce and secrete proteins such as hormones

The nucleus carries all the necessary instructions for the cell to function. The code for protein synthesis is carried in the ____________ which are made of ____________ or histones. The instructions are ____________ or copied into mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid). The mRNA then leaves the nucleus via the _________________ and travels to the ______________ where the message is read and translated into protein. The newly manufactured proteins are transported to forming face of Golgi body/apparatus in transport __________. Within the Golgi apparatus the proteins are processed. Vesicles are budded off from the maturing face of Golgi and are transferred to the ___________________ for secretion. Glandular cells (e.g. pancreas) contain large amounts of __________________ (this is encrusted with ribosomes and is where protein synthesis takes place) and Golgi body. These cells also contain many mitochondria since protein synthesis requires a lot of __________.

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

1) The diagram below shows Staphylococcus, which is a prokaryotic cell. Label parts A to D

1) Eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles, give 5 examples:

2) Prokaryotic cells have one membrane, where is it?

3) Give one way in which a eukaryotic plant cell is similar to a prokaryote.

4) Give two ways in which a eukaryotic plant cell is different from a prokaryote.

5) Use table 1 to compare plant (eukaryote), animal (eukaryote) and prokaryotic cells. For each cell type indicate whether the feature is present or absent using a tick or cross.

Feature
Plant cells
Animal cells
Prokaryote cells
Chloroplasts

Large permanent vacuole

Cellulose cell wall

Peptidoglycan (murein) cell wall

Linear chromosome

Circular chromosome

Plasmids

Endoplastic Reticulum

Golgi body

DNA free in the cytoplasm

ATP is produced in the mitochondria

ATP is produced at infolded regions of the cell membrane called mesosomes

Flagella made form spiral protein called Flagellin

Ribosomes

Cell membrane

6) Label the highlighted features on the diagram of the bacterium E.coli shown in the diagram below.