Answer the following questions:
Cellular respiration: • What is cellular respiration and what are its three stages? The main function of cellular respiration is to generate ATP for cellular work; it is the process of harvesting chemical energy from organic fuel and converting it to ATP energy. The three stages of cell respiration include: Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and Electron Transport(Simon, Reece, & Dickery, 2010). • What is the role of glycolysis? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? In glycolysis, the 6-carbon sugar, glucose, is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This change is accompanied by a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (Simon, Reece, & Dickery, 2010). • What is the role of the citric acid cycle? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? The Citric cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and generates a pool of chemical energy (ATP, NADH, and FADH2) from the oxidation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria and loses carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, a 2-carbon molecule. When acetyl-CoA is oxidized to carbon dioxide in the Krebs cycle, chemical energy is released and captured in the form of NADH, FADH2, and ATP (Simon, Reece, & Dickery, 2010). • What is the role of the electron transport system? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? The electron transport chain allows the release of the large amount of chemical energy stored in reduced NAD+ (NADH) and reduced FAD (FADH2). The energy released is captured in the form of ATP (3 ATP per NADH and 2 ATP per FADH2). The electron transport chain (ETC) consists of a series of molecules, mostly proteins, embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane (Simon, Reece, & Dickery, 2010).
• What is the overall goal of
References: Simon, E.J., Reece, J.B., Dickery, J.L., (2010); Campbell Essential biology with physiology, (3rd Ed.), San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings NASA website (2012) Global warming trends: Retrieved from http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/ FRW Group(2012); How does global warming affect our climate?, Retrieved from: http://www.fwrgroup.com.au/global-warming-affect-climate.html