Cell Biology notes

Topics: Protein, Cell membrane, Cell Pages: 27 (7351 words) Published: November 27, 2013
Cell Biology Test 1
Tuesday, September 10, 2013
7:33 PM
 
I. Tour of the Cell
I.a. 2 cells don’t reproduce
I.a.i. Most neurons
I.a.ii. Skeletal muscles (too big to undergo mitosis)
I.a. Cells are complexi organized
I.a.i. Respond to stimuli
I.a. 3 necessary components for cells
I.a.i. Be able to accumulate energy from environment
I.a.ii. Information storage and retrieval system
I.a.iii. Boundary system to separate inside from outside
I.a. Prokaryotes
I.a.i. Form before the nucleus (no nucleaus, no internal membrane structure) I.a.ii. Bacteria
I.a.i.1. Some are good
I.a.i.1.a. (E. Coli)
I.a.i.1.a.i. Waste produces vitamin K which helps blood clotting I.a.i.1.a.ii. MreB
I.a.i.1.a.i.1. An actin in bodies, builds structure
I.a.i.1.a.i.1.1. Control protein, makes muscles move, found in all shapes bacteria and chromosomes shaped segregation I.a.i.1. Bacteria Phages
I.a.i.1.a. Phages that attack bacteria, causes DNA from viruses to produce tubulin protein, to create more viruses I.a.i.1. Has a cell wall. Pourous material made of 2 sugars I.a.i.2. 3 amino acids linked known as a Peptide bridge

I.a.i. Cell Wall
I.a.i.1. Has Plasma membrane made of lipids, fats, proteins, attached to the cell, selectively permeable structure, keeps control of what gets in and out of the cell I.a.i.2. Pushes membrane against cell wall

I.a.i.1.a. Messasome
I.a.i.1.a.i. Where ATP is formed, and cellular respiration
I.a.i. Structure of DNA in Prokaryoes is a circle 0
I.a.ii. Have plasmids
I.a.i.1. Genes for many things end upon plasmids. Can be exchanged with other material cells I.a.i. Have Ribosomes
I.a.i.1. Where proteins are made and mRNA
I.a.i.2. Smaller than Eukaryotes Ribosomes (works the same) I.a.i. Cytoskeleton in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
I.a.ii. Tubulin -protein that makes up microtubules
I.a.i.1. FstZ
I.a.i.1.a. Found in all Prokaryotes and in chloroplasts in plant cells I.a.i.1.b. Used in cell division (cytokinesis)
I.a.i. PAN
I.a.i.1. Requires ATP to work, (protein structure),
I.a.i.1.a. It breaks down and degrades protein the cell doesn't need anymore I.a.i. Storage Granules
I.a.i.1. Provides storage for carbon, nitrogen, sugars and starches which provide energy for cell. I.a.i.2. Have flagella for movement
I.a.i.3. Have Pilli,, extension of cell wall does 2 things
I.a.i.1.a. Attach bacterial cells to surfaces
I.a.i.1.b. Transfer plasmids from one bacterial cell to another I.a.i.1.c. *this distributes genes throughout*
I.a.i.1. Granules are crystals inside cells for storage
I.a. Eukaryotes have nucleus, extensive set of internal membranes I.a.i. Importance of membranes
I.a.i.1. Most chemical reactions happen in, on, or around cell membrane I.a.i.2. Create an internal environment in the cell.
I.a.i.3. Oxygen is toxic to almost everything in the cell, BUT is crucial in mitochondria to make ATP's I.a.i.4. Allow to set up different PH systems
I.a.i. Plant cells have cell walls (cellulose) (animals don’t) I.a.ii. Fungi have cell walls but differ from plant cells, (chitin) I.a.iii. Squamous cells
I.a.i.1. Found on skin, in mouth, has nucleus
I.a.i. Nucleus
I.a.i.1. Contains DNA, double layered membrane structure, in between membranes there are pores which allows what comes in and out of nucleus I.a.i. Protein tag
I.a.i.1. Helps the pores decide what can be let in and out of the nucleus I.a.i. DNA
I.a.i.1. Held in chromosomes, in nucleus,
I.a.i.2. Chromosomes only their during cell division, mostly their during cromatine I.a.i.1.a. Combination on DNA and proteins that make up the nucleus in the cell. I.a.i.1.b. Functions;
I.a.i.1.a.i. Package DNA to fit inside cell
I.a.i.1.a.ii. Strengthen DNA to allow mitosis
I.a.i.1.a.iii. Prevent DNA damage
I.a.i.1.a.iv. To control gene expressions and DNA replication I.a.i.1.a. DNA fairly loosely coiled. Not randomly spread throughout nucleus. Have specific spots I.a.i. Nucleolus
I.a.i.1. Not a membrane...
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