Topics: Islam, Europe, Aztec Pages: 9 (2264 words) Published: December 2, 2013
Chapter 13: Chapter Outline
The following annotated chapter outline will help you review the major topics covered in this chapter. Instructions: Review the outline to recall events and their relationships as presented in the chapter. Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar. I. Opening Vignette

A. In 2005, China celebrated the 600th anniversary of the initial launching of the country’s great maritime expeditions in 1405. 1. Admiral Zheng He had commanded a fleet of over 300 ships carrying 27,000 people that sailed as far as the East African coast 2. Why is Columbus so much more remembered?

B. The fifteenth century was a major turning point in world history. 1. Zheng He’s voyages did not have world-historical consequences 2. Columbus’s voyages did
C. This chapter’s purpose is to review the human story up to the sixteenth century and to establish a baseline against which to measure the transformations of the period 1500–2000.
II. The Shapes of Human Communities
A. In 1500, the world still had all types of societies, from bands of gatherers and hunters to empires, but the balance between them was different than it had been in 500. B. Paleolithic Persistence

1. gathering and hunting societies (Paleolithic peoples) still existed throughout all of Australia , much of Siberia, the arctic coastlands, and parts of Africa and the Americas 2. they had changed over time, interacted with their neighbors 3. example of Australian gatherers and hunters

a. some 250 separate groups
b. had assimilated outside technologies and ideas, e.g., outrigger canoes, fish hooks, netting techniques, artistic styles, rituals, mythological concepts c. had not adopted agriculture
d. manipulated their environment through “firestick farming” e. exchanged goods over hundreds of miles
f. developed sophisticated sculpture and rock painting
4. northwest coast of North America developed very differently a. abundant environment allowed development of a complex gathering and hunting culture b. had permanent villages, economic specialization, hierarchies, chiefdoms, food storage 5. elsewhere, farming had advanced and absorbed Paleolithic lands C. Agricultural Village Societies

1. predominated in much of North America, in Africa south of the equator, in parts of the Amazon River basin and Southeast Asia 2. their societies mostly avoided oppressive authority, class inequalities, and seclusion of women typical of other civilizations 3. example of forested region in present-day southern Nigeria , where three different political patterns developed a. Yoruba people created city-states, each ruled by a king (oba), many of whom were women and who performed both religious and political functions b. kingdom of Benin: centralized territorial state ruled by a warrior king named Ewuare c. Igbo peoples: dense population and trade, but purposely rejected kingship and state building d. Yoruba, Benin , and Igbo peoples traded among themselves and beyond e. the region shared common artistic traditions

f. all shifted from matrilineal to patrilineal system
4. in what is now central New York State, agricultural village societies underwent substantial change in the centuries before 1500 a. Iroquois speakers had become fully agricultural (maize and beans) by around 1300 b. population growth, emergence of distinct peoples

c. rise of warfare as key to male prestige (perhaps since women did the farming, so males were no longer needed for getting food) d. warfare triggered the creation of the Iroquois League of Five Nations, based on agreement known as the Great Law of Peace e. some European colonists appreciated Iroquois values of social equality and personal freedom (even for women) D. Herding Peoples

1. Turkic warrior Timur (Tamerlane) tried to restore the Mongol Empire ca. 1400 a. his army devastated Russia ,...
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