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Causes of Obesity

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Topics: Obesity
Natasha Essien
Proff: DeStefano
ENG: 099-004
3 November 2012
Explain what is causing the problem of obesity
Overweight and obesity are defined as having a body mass greater than or equal to 25 and 30. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “There are 1.6 billion overweight adults more than 400 million worldwide” (Glasnik, 2012) American teens and children are also affected; an estimated 32% of children and young adults aged 2-19 years are either overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity has been rising steadily over the last several decades and is currently at unprecedented levels: more than 68% of US adults are considered overweight, and 35% are obese (JAMA, pp. 303:235-241). Over the past two decades, rates of adult and childhood obesity in the developed world have risen sharply. This study assembles the evidence for a geographical explanation of this trend, examining the ways in which environment and living conditions promote an imbalance of energy intake over energy expenditure. Being overweight or obese means your weight is above an ideal weight range. Excess weight creates increase in heart disease, certain cancers, and other serious illnesses like diabetes. Obesity is a major problem in the country, causes of obesity is related to our daily diet and lack of exercise, genetics, and sometimes lack of sleep
One of the main causes of obesity is poor diet, specifically, taking in more calories than needed to support an individual's daily activity level. To illustrate this, you only need to compare the average calorie intake as it relates to the percentage of the population classified as obese. From 1971 to 2004 in the United States, the average daily calorie intake for women increased by 335 calories a day, while the average man's caloric intake increased by 168 calories a day. During this same period, the obesity rate in the United States increased from 14.5 percent to 31 percent. To help prevent obesity, an individual should match the number of calories consumed to the number of calories expended daily through exercise and other activities, excess weight gain occurs when there is lack of exercise or lazing about all day. High calories intake and low usage will cause weight gain, if this happens regularly it will lead to obesity (Allen). Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines (Blackwell).
The study reports on the impact of sleep deprivation to obesity and diabetes as shown in the April 2006 issue of "Science News." The study shows that the appetite of a human body may be influenced by lack of sleep due to the changes in the hormones ghrelin, by 15 percent beyond the average, and leptin1, with 16 percent less than the usual. Individuals who sleep less or more than eight hours are generally heavier than those who have normal sleeping time. A study conducted by the University of Chicago and the Free University of Brussels reveal that sleep-deprived individuals tend to produce greater amounts of insulin than those who have eight hours of sleep causing exposure to diabetes, “Studies based on self-report have been unable to identify an association in older populations” (2007, pp. 3-14). The more sleep we get, the better our chances of maintaining or losing weight, when we go deep sleep our brain is more relaxed and there most organs in our body is no longer active, but when we are awake and ideal all the brain and body thinks of is eat, eat, eat, and sometimes we cannot deprive our body of what it wants if we are not strong or well disciplined
Finally, one cause of obesity can also be the genetics of a family; adiponectin is an abundantly expressed adipokine in adipose tissue and has direct insulin sensitizing activity. A decrease in the circulating levels of adiponectin by interactions between genetic factors and environmental factors causing obesity has been shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. In addition to its insulin sensitizing actions, adiponectin has central actions in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Adiponectin enhances AMP-activated protein kinase activity in the arcuate hypothalamus via its receptor AdipoR1 to stimulate food intake and decreases energy expenditure. We propose a hypothesis on the physiological role of adiponectin: a starvation gene in the course of evolution by promoting fat storage on facing the loss of adiposity. Numerous genetic abnormalities are characterized by obesity. In some cases, single gene mutations can have a very important effect on body mass index (BMI). The present manuscript addresses the rare and common forms of obesity with special regard to observations in children. It also discusses different methodological approaches currently used for the study of genetic factors influencing common obesity or variation in BMI, including the candidate gene approach, genome scan, genome-wide association studies, and gene expression studies. Nowadays obesity is considered a complex disease with a polygenic background. Some gene variants have been associated with common obesity and variation in BMI. However, the effects observed seem to be minor and replications in different populations are required to confirm the effect of the identified alleles and to establish the mechanisms that explain their contribution to obesity (Tejero, pp. 441-450). Most at times we over think way too much just because we want to control our weight or those with diabetes may also want to be extra careful of what they eat. The diabetics tend to believe the “all white food is bad” because it is starchy, sugary and lacking nutrition but that belief has no scientific basis and is confusing says Anne Daly. Some white foods are good and provide our bodies with healthy nutrition, so it is not all bad to eat white food, but a mixer of vegetables and greens and lots of exercise will help and also balance our weight.

Works Cited
Y Sorokin, et al. "The Impact Of Maternal Obesity On Midtrimester Sonographic Visualization Of Fetal Cardiac And Craniospinal Structures." International Journal Of Obesity & Related
Metabolic Disorders 28.12 (2004): 1607-1611. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Nov. 2012.
Wright, Suzanne, and Louis Aronne. "Causes Of Obesity." Abdominal Imaging 37.5 (2012): 730-732. Academic search premier. Web. 28 nov. 2012.
Beil, laura. "The Snack-Food Trap." Newsweek 160.19 (2012): 44-47. Academic Search Premier. Web. 30 Nov. 2012.
Fontanarosa, Phil B., Catherine D. DeAngelis, and John E.L. Wong. "JAMA, National University Health System, Singapore, Host Diabetes, Obesity Meeting." JAMA: Journal Of The American Medical Association 300.15 (2008): 1750-1751. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Dec. 2012.

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