The cost of food began to rise in the 1700's because of deficit spending over the years on wars and a building. The government needed to make money so they taxed basically everything possibly available to the people of the Third Estate, which consisted of the middle class, who were landowners, bankers, merchants, manufacturers, and more. Commoners and the poorest peasants are also part of the Third Estate. The First Estate made up 1% of the people and owned 10% of the land, the Second Estate made up 2% of the people and owned 35% of the land, and the Third Estate makes up 97% of the people and owns 55% of the land. Lands held by nobility were taxed very little but lands held by commoners were taxed heavily. Bad harvests caused the price of food to rise even more, therefore many people cannot afford it and hunger spreads. People began to riot and demand for food.
When the delegates of the three Estates and the king met together for the Estates General the Third Estate argued that the voting was unfair and they were always at a two to one disadvantage, they would always be outvoted by the first two Estates. In order to insure the Third Estate the influence it deserves because of its numbers, it's votes should be taken by head. This and other requests were not taken into consideration by the king and the first two Estates. No matter how wealthy a person is the best jobs were reserved for nobility,