Causes and Spread of Infection

Topics: Immune system, Bacteria, Blood Pages: 10 (3027 words) Published: June 20, 2013
Outcome 1 Understand the causes of infection

1. identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Bacteria are organisms that are made up from one cell. They are capable of multiplying themselves as they have power to divide. Bacteria exist everywhere inside and on our bodies. Most of them are harmless and some are very useful. But some of them may cause diseases sometimes because they end up in the wrong please of our body or because they harmful to us.

Viruses are smaller then bacteria and only one or two viral cells can cause an infection. They are not able to divide and multiplying on their own so they need to invade a host cells in order to replicate and make more virus particles. Viruses cannot survive for very long when they outside they host body and so close contact between people is needed for viruses to spread. They can attach onto host cells within the body in order to get inside them. They can pass many of the immune systems defences. Some viruses can mutate to form new strains of disease. Some effects of the viruses can be controlled through immunisation. They cannot be treated with antibiotics but some of them with anti-viral medication.

Fungi are a form of parasite and live off living or dead organic matter (plants or animals). Fungi include yeasts( single called), moulds, mushrooms (multi-celled). Most fungi require oxygen to thrive. Most fungal infections cause infections to those with lowered immunity.

Parasites are organisms that live within the host (internal parasites or endoparasites) and organisms that live on the host (external parasites or ectoparasites.

2. identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Bacteria's infections are:
- cholera
- diphtheria
- impetigo
- legionnaire's disease
- Lyme disease
- syphilis
- tetanus/lockjaw
- tuberculosis
- whooping cough

Viruses infections are:
- acquired immune deficiency syndrome/AIDS or human immunodeficiency virus/HIV - chicken pox
- glandular fever/mononucleosis
- herpes
- infectious hepatitis
- flu
- measles
- mumps
- poliomyelitis/infantile paralysis/polio

Fungal's infections are:
- athlete's foot
- ringworm
- thrush

Parasitic organisms are:
Internal ( endoparasites)
- theadworm
- tapeworm
External parasites (ectoparasites) as ticks, mosquitoes and fleas can transmit infection like: - Lyme disease
- malaria

3. describe what is meant by “infection” and “colonisation”

Infection is the invasion of a host organism's bodily tissues by disease-causing organisms, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infections are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, prions, bacteria, and viroids, and larger organisms like macroparasites and fungi.

Colonisation it is possible for microorganisms to be present on the body without causing an infection in the person. Colonising microorganisms establish themselves in the particular environment such as body but do not necessarily produce disease. For example MRSA can live harmlessly of many people without causing any problems.

4. explain what is meant by “systemic infection” and “localised infection”

Systemic infection affect the whole of the body for example spreading by the bloodstream. Systemic infections include tonsillitis, influenza, chicken pox, malaria and glandular fever. Symptoms may include raised temperature/fever, shaking/chills, overall weakness, aching joints.

Localised infection means infection is confined in one specific area and affecting one part of the body. Localised infection can be very dangerous if they are internal such as appendix (appendicitis) or in the heart (endorse-carditis). Common example of localised infection is an infected cut. Symptoms of an infected wound may include warm or hot skin in this area, pain, plus like discharge, redness, swelling.

5. identify poor practices that...
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