Causes and Effects of Internet Addiction Among Students

Topics: Addiction, Internet, Maressa Orzack Pages: 36 (10448 words) Published: March 30, 2012
International Journal of Economic Sciences and Applied Research 3 (1): 49-74

Internet Addiction among Greek University Students: Demographic Associations with the Phenomenon, using the Greek version of Young’s Internet Addiction Test Christos C. Frangos1, Constantinos C. Frangos2 and Apostolos P. Kiohos3 Abstract Internet addiction (IA) is a new disorder described in 1996 by the psychologist Kimberly Young. The aim of this paper is to estimate the percentage of IA among Greek university students. Results of a sample survey among 1876 Greek university students, 18-27 years old, are presented. The questionnaire consisted of eight questions from Young’s Diagnostic Test for Internet Addiction (YDTIA) as well as an inventory including demographic factors and questions about academic performance, computer and Internet use. YDTIA had a good reliability and diagnostic accuracy, tested with Cronbach’s alpha (0.71) and sensitivity analysis. Results show that the percentage of IA (5-8 YDTIA criteria) is 11.6%, while problematic Internet users were (3-8 YDTIA criteria) 34.7%. Men were more likely to be addicted to the Internet than women, and Internet addicted students were associated with poorer academic performance. Multiple logistic regression showed that significant predictors of IA included increased hours of daily Internet use, increased hours visiting chat rooms, sex pages and blogs, male gender, divorced status, poor grades, and accessing the Internet outside of the home. The results of this study will allow health officials to recognise students who are Internet addicted or on the verge of becoming addicted and stress risk factors indicating a need for intervention in order to prevent the appearance of IA. Keywords: Greece, university students, Internet addiction, gender, academic performance, sex pages JEL classification: C83, I10, I21 1. Introduction 1.1 Definition: Internet Addiction The Internet is a widely recognized channel for information exchange, academic research, entertainment, communication and commerce (Moore, 1995; Widyanto and Griffiths, 2006; Douglas et al., 2008; Byun et al., 2009). Although the positive aspects of the 1. Department of Business Administration, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece - e-mail: 2. Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK 3. Department of Business Administration, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece


Christos C. Frangos, Constantinos C. Frangos and Apostolos P. Kiohos Internet have been readily praised, there is a growing amount of literature on the negative side of its excessive and pathological use (Chou and Hsiao, 2000; Caplan, 2003; Beard, 2005; Frangos and Frangos, 2009). Byun et al. (2009) estimate that 9 million Americans could be labelled as pathological Internet users with unpleasant consequences for their social life, their professional status and their psychological condition (Shapira et al., 2000; Shapira et al., 2003; Young, 2004; Walker, 2006). In the scientific literature, several terms have been proposed to describe pathological Internet use: Internet addiction, cyberspace addiction, Internet addiction disorder, online addiction, Net addiction, Internet addicted disorder, pathological Internet use, high Internet dependency, problematic Internet use and others (Widyanto and Griffiths, 2006; Byun et al., 2009). To date, there is neither a conclusive nor a consistent definition for this disorder, making it difficult to establish a coherent picture of this disorder throughout the world. Nevertheless, efforts are being made to reach one uniform definition, which might also be included in the DSM V, the authoritative guidebook for the diagnoses of psychiatric disorders by the American Psychological Association (Block, 2008). For purposes of this study, we chose the term Internet Addiction (IA) because it was the first term used to describe this phenomenon and for which the...

References: American Psychiatric Association, (1994), Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders DSM IV, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association. Aslanidou, S., Menexes, G., (2008), ‘Youth and the Internet: Uses and practices in the home’, Computers & Education, 51, pp. 1375-1391. Bayer, A.E., 1972, ‘College Impact on Marriage’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 34, pp. 600-609. Bayraktar, F., Gün, Z., (2007), ‘Incidence and Correlates of Internet Usage among Adolescents in North Cyprus’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, pp. 191-197. Beard, K.W., (2005), ‘Internet addiction: a Review of current assessment techniques and potential assessment questions’, CybePsychology & Behavior, 8, pp. 7-14. Beard, K.W., Wolf. E.M., (2001), ‘Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4, pp. 377-383. Busch, T., (1995), ‘Gender differences in self-efficacy and attitudes towards computers’, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12, pp. 147-158. Byun, S., Ruffini, C., Mills, J.E., Douglas, A.C., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., Lee, S.K., Loutfi, J., Lee, J-K., Atallah, M., Blanton, M., (2009), ‘Internet Addiction: Metasynthesis of 1996-2006. Quantitative Research’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12, pp. 203-207. Caplan, S.E., (2003), ‘Preference for online social interaction: a theory of problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being’, Communication Research, 30, pp. 625648. Ceyhan, A.A., (2008), ‘Predictors of Problematic Internet Use on Turkish University Students’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, pp. 363-366. Chen, Y.F., Peng, S.S., (2008), ‘University students’ internet use and its relationships with academic performance, interpersonal relationships, psychosocial adjustment, and self-evaluation’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, pp. 467-469. Chou, C., Condron, L., Belland, J.C., (2005), ‘A review of the research on Internet addiction’, Educational Psychology Review, 17, pp. 363-388. Chou, C., Hsiao, M., (2000), ‘Internet addiction, usage, gratifications, and pleasure experience: the Taiwan College Student’s case’, Computers & Education, 35, pp. 65-80. Davis, R.A., (2001), ‘A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological internet use’, Computers in Human Behavior, 17, pp. 187-195. Douglas, A.C., Mills, J.E., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., Byun, S., Ruffini, C., Lee, S.K., Loutfi, J., Lee, J-K., Atallah, M., Blanton, M., (2008), ‘Internet addiction: Metasynthesis of qualitative research for the decade 1996-2006’, Computers in Human Behavior, 24, pp. 3027-3044. Federwisch, A., (1997), ‘Internet Addiction?’ available at: features/97-8/iadct.html. Accessed: 24 March 2010. Ferraro, G., Caci, B., D’amico, A., Di Blasi, M., (2007), ‘Internet Addiction Disorder: An 70
Internet Addiction among Greek University Students: Demographic Associations with the Phenomenon, using the Greek version of Young’s Internet Addiction Test Italian Study’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, pp. 170-175. Fitzpatrick, J.J., (2008), ‘Internet addiction: recognition and interventions’, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 22, pp. 59-60. Frangos, C.C., Frangos, C.C., (2009), ‘Internet Dependence in College Students from Greece’, European Psychiatry, 24(Suppl 1), S419. Frangos, C.C., Frangos, C.C., Sotiropoulos, I., Valvi, C.C., (2009), ‘Psychosocial Characteristics of Heavy and Non heavy Internet Users based on a Sample Survey among University Students from Greece’, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantitative and Qualitative Methodologies in the Economic and Administrative Sciences, Athens, Greece, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, pp. 126-131. Georgia Tech GVU WWW survey, (1994), Graphics, visualization, and Usability Center (GVU). Results from the first world wide web user survey, Atlanta, Georgia Tech Research Corporation. Available at: survey-01-1994. Accessed: 24 March 2010. Gold, J.M., (2006), ‘Exploring Marital Satisfaction among Graduate Students: Implications for Service Delivery’, Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 14, pp. 417-419. Griffiths, M.D., (1995), ‘Technological addictions’, Clinical Psychology Forum, issue 76, pp. 14-19. Griffiths, M., (1996a), ‘Gambling on the Internet: A brief note’, Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, pp. 471-473. Griffiths, M.D., (1996b), ‘Internet addiction: an issue for clinical psychology?’, Clinical Psychology Forum, issue 97, pp. 32-36. Griffiths, M., (1997), ‘Friendship and social development in children and adolescents: the impact of electronic technology’, Educational and Child Psychology, 14, pp. 25-37. Griffiths, M., (2000), ‘Does internet and computer “addiction” exist? Some case study evidence’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, pp. 211-218. Griffiths, M., Miller, H., Gillespie, T., Sparrow, P., (1999), ‘Internet usage and ‘Internet addiction’ in students and its implications for student learning’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15, pp. 85-90. Hertlein, K.M., Piercy, F.P., (2006), ‘Internet Infidelity: A Critical Review of the Literature’, Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 14, 366-371. Huang, R. L., Lu, Z., Liu, J. J., You, Y. M., Pan, Z. Q., Wei, Z., He, Q., Wang, Z. Z., (2009), ‘Features and predictors of problematic internet use in Chinese college students’, Behaviour & Information Technology, 28, pp. 485-490. Hur, M.H., (2006), ‘Demographic, habitual, and socioeconomic determinants of Internet addiction disorder: An empirical study of Korean teenagers’, Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9, pp. 514-525. Johansson, A., Götestam, K.G., (2004), ‘Internet addiction: characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth (12-18 years)’, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45, pp. 223-229. Kandell, J.J., (1998), ‘Internet addiction on campus: the vulnerability of college students’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, pp. 11-17. Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M.Y., Yeun, E.J., Choi, S.Y., Seo, J.S., Nam, B.W., (2006), ‘In71
Christos C. Frangos, Constantinos C. Frangos and Apostolos P. Kiohos ternet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, pp. 185-192. Ko, C.H., Yen, J.Y., Chen, C.C., Chen, S.H., Wu, K., Yen, C.F., (2006), ‘Tridimensional personality of adolescents with Internet addiction and substance use experience’, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, pp. 887-894. Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., Baneva, B., Cummings, J., Helgeson, V., Crawford, A., (2002), ‘Internet paradox Revisited’, Journal of Social Issues, 58, pp. 49-74. Kubey, R.W., Lavin, M.J., Barrows, J.R., (2001), ‘Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings’, Journal of Communication, 51, pp. 366-382. Lavin, M., Marvin, K., McLarney, A., Nola, V., Scott, L., (1999), ‘Sensation seeking and collegiate vulnerability to Internet dependence’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 2, pp. 425-430. Lin, S.S.J., Tsai, C-C., (2002), ‘Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Taiwanese high school adolescents’, Computers in Human Behavior, 18, pp. 411-426. McRoy, S., Fisher, V.L., (1982), ‘Marital Adjustment of Graduate Student Couples’, Family Relations, 31, pp. 37-41. Mitchell, P., (2000), ‘Internet addiction: genuine diagnosis or not?’, Lancet, 355, 632. Moore, D.W., (1995), The emperor’s virtual clothes: the naked truth about Internet culture. Chapel Hill, NC, Algonquin Books. Morahan-Martin, J., (1998), ‘The Gender Gap in Internet Use: Why Men Use the Internet More Than Women-A Literature Review’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, pp. 3-10. Morahan-Martin, J., Schumacher, P., (2000), ‘Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college students’, Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 13-29. Nalwa, K., Anand. A.P., (2003), ‘Internet Addiction in Students: A Cause of Concern’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, pp. 653-656. Niemz, K., Griffiths. M., Banyard, P., (2005), ‘Prevalence of pathological Internet use among university students and correlations with self-esteem, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and disinhibition’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, pp. 562570. Pallant, J., (2007), SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis using SPSS for Windows, 3rd ed. Berkshire, England, Open University Press. Papastergiou, M., Solomonidou, C., (2005), ‘Gender issues in Internet access and favourite Internet activities among Greek high school pupils inside and outside school’, Computers & Education, 44, pp. 377-393. Patchin, J.W., Hinduja, S., (2006), ‘Bullies Move beyond the Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying’, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4, pp. 148-169. Riffenburgh, R.H., (2005), Statistics in Medicine, 2nd Ed. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Academic Press. Scherer, K., (1997), ‘College Life On-Line: Healthy and Unhealthy Internet Use’, Journal of College Student Development, 38, pp. 655-665. Schneider, J.P., (2000), ‘Effects of cybersex addiction on the family: Results of a survey’, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, pp. 31-58. Shapira, N.A., Goldsmith, T.G., Keck, P.E. Jr, Khosla, U.M., Mcelroy, S.L., (2000), ‘Psy72
Internet Addiction among Greek University Students: Demographic Associations with the Phenomenon, using the Greek version of Young’s Internet Addiction Test chiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use’, Journal of Affective Disorders, 57, pp. 267-272. Shapira, N.A., Lessig, M.C., Goldsmith, T.D., Szabo, S.T., Lazoritz, M., Gold, M.S., Stein, D.J., (2003), ‘Problematic Internet use: proposed classification and diagnostic criteria’, Depression and Anxiety, 17, pp. 207-216. Shaw, L.H., Gant, L.M., (2002), ‘Users divided? Exploring the gender gap in Internet use’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, pp. 517-527. Sherman, R.C., End, C., Kraan, E., Cole, A., Campbell, J., Birchmeier, Z., Klausner, J., (2000), ‘The Internet gender gap among college students: Forgotten but not gone’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, pp. 885-894. Shotton, M.A., (1991), ‘The costs and benefits of ‘computer addiction’, Behaviour & Information Technology, 10, pp. 219-230. Siomos, K.E., Dafouli, E.D., Braimiotis, D.A., Mouzas, O.D., Angelopoulos, N.V., (2008), ‘Internet Addiction among Greek adolescent Students’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, pp. 653-657. Tabachnick, B.G., Fidell, L.S., (2000), Using Multivariate Statistics, 4th Ed. London: Allyn and Bacon Publications. Thatcher, A., Goolam, S., (2005a), ‘Defining the South African Internet ‘addict’: Prevalence and biographical profiling of problematic Internet users in South Africa’, South African Journal of Psychology, 35, pp. 766-792. Thatcher, A., Goolam, S., (2005b), ‘Development and psychometric properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire’, South African Journal of Psychology, 35, pp. 793-809. Thatcher, A., Wretschko, G., Fridjhon, P., (2008), ‘Online flow experiences, problematic Internet use and Internet procrastination’, Computers in Human Behavior, 24, pp. 2236-2254. Tsai, C-C., Lin, S.S.J., (2001), ‘Analysis of attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction of Taiwanese adolescents’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4, pp. 373-376. Tsai, C-C., Lin, S.S.J., (2003), ‘Internet addiction of adolescents in Taiwan: An interview study’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, pp. 649-652. Tsai, H.F., Cheng, S.H., Yeh, T.L., Shih, C.C., Chen, K.C., Yang, Y.C., Yang, Y.K., (2009), ‘The risk factors of Internet addiction-A survey of university freshmen’, Psychiatry Research, 167, pp. 294-299. Tsitsika, A., Critselis, E., Kormas, G., Filippopoulou, A., Tounissidou, D., Freskou, A., Spiliopoulou, T., Louizou, A., Konstantoulaki, E., Kafetzis, D., (2009), ‘Internet use and misuse: a multivariate regression analysis of the predictive factors of internet use among Greek adolescents’, European Journal of Pediatrics, 168, pp. 655-665. Walker, J.P., (2006), Identifying and overcoming barriers to the successful adoption and use of wikis in collaborative knowledge management. Chapel Hill, University of North Caroline. Available at: Accessed: 24 March 2010. Weiser, E.B., (2000), ‘Gender Differences in Internet Use Patterns and Internet Application Preferences: A Two-Sample Comparison’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3, pp. 167178. Widyanto, L., Griffiths, M., (2006), ‘Internet Addiction’: A Critical Review’, International 73
Christos C. Frangos, Constantinos C. Frangos and Apostolos P. Kiohos Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, pp. 31-51. Ybarra, M., Mitchell, K.J., (2005), ‘Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8, pp. 473-486. Young, K.S., (1996a), ‘Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder’, Paper presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, August 15, 1996, Toronto, Canada. Young, K.S., (1996b), ‘Addictive use of the internet: a case study that breaks the stereotype’, Psychological Reports, 79, pp. 899-902. Young, K.S., (1998), ‘Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, pp. 237-244. Young, K.S., (2004), ‘Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its Consequences’, American Behavioral Scientist, 48, pp. 402-415. Young, K.S., Rogers, R.C., (1998), ‘The relationship between Depression and Internet Addiction’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, pp. 25-28. YouTube, (2008), ‘Internet Addiction Disorder’, available at: watch?v=0F20uskajQg. Accessed: 24 March 2010. Yuen, C.N., Lavin, M.J., (2004), ‘Internet dependence in the collegiate population: The role of shyness’, CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, pp. 379-383. Appendix Table 7: Time use of certain Internet applications
NA: not answered F: Frequency, P: percentage
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Internet Addiction Cause and Effect
  • The Causes and Effects of Internet Addiction Research Paper
  • Essay on Facebook Addiction Among Students
  • The Causes and Effects of Smoking Among Students Essay
  • Essay on Internet Addiction and Its Effects on Educationla Succes
  • A Study of Internet Addiction Among Students of Sekolah Essay
  • Essay about Effects of Internet Addiction

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free