Cause and Effects Of Human Trafficking
27million adults and 13million children are being trafficked worldwide. Human trafficking has become a multibillion crime enterprise, second to drug and arms dealing. Human trafficking is the recruitment, smuggling or receipt of persons by means of violence or other means of fraud, abuse authority or receiving benefits to control over a person for the purpose of exploitation (The United Nation n.d.). The roots of human trafficking lies in its high demand, the low risk nature of the job and the mentality of society.
Humans are highly profitable as forced labourer (Polaris Japan, 2012). Forced labour is an all work service which is exhausted from any person under cruelty, where the individual is unwilling to perform voluntarily (C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930). Major forms of forced labourer are commercial sexual exploitations and forced economical exploitations. Commercial sexual exploitations include prostitution and pornography, while economical exploitations cover manual labour. These trades generate an estimated 31.6 billion dollars with industrialized economies contributing 49% of the grand total (Besler Patrick, 2005). High demands play a crucial role. When people are willing to buy sex, they create a market for traffickers to sexually exploit; when consumers buys services from forced labour industries, labour traffickers gain a profit incentive.
Human trafficking is a low risk trade. People are ignorant to trafficking, institutions are not trained to respond, laws are ineffective to address the crime, victims have no safety nets and when the law does not prosecute the crime, traffickers perceive little risks to affect their operations. Country permitting prostitution like Germany, often had human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitations concealed even to the eyes of the law enforcer for prostitution is deemed normal and tolerated. Every 800 people trafficked, only one person was convicted...
References: (Austein Michelle, 2007. Human Trafficking: A Human Rights Violation and Security Risks, Washington: Washington Files)
(Besler Patrick, 2005
(C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930. ILO Conventions. Geneva.)
(Finnegan William, 2008, Stories From The New York: The Countertraffickers
(Labour Rights Promotion Network, 2007. From facilitation to trafficking: Brokers and agents in Samut Sakhon SIREN Field Report . http://www.humantrafficking.org/publications/583)
(Lunde & Ortmann, 1992
(Pineda Paloma, 2011. Human Trafficking: The effects on the victim. http://www.wfalliance.org/news/2011/inourownbackyard/HumanTrafficking_TheEffectsontheVictimbyPalomaPineda_April%202011.pdf)
(Polaris Japan, 2012
(The London School Of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 2006, A summary report on the physical and psychological health consequences of women and adolescences trafficked in Europe : Stolen Smiles, London.)
(United States Mission, 2005
(US State Department, 2007, Trafficking in Persons Report 2007, p.36)
(West Africa Review, n.d.
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