Catering Theory 2 Test Paper

Topics: Digestion, Stomach, Gastric acid Pages: 5 (1277 words) Published: February 24, 2012
Subject: Catering Theory 2 Serial Number:72365L Test Number: 1 Edition: 1



Question 1 Develop your own menu for breakfast, lunch and dinner. a) Tabulate the menu into grouped foods plan b) Comment whether the menu is balanced or not c) What cooking methods would you use and why? d) Discuss the appearance of the menu under the headings texture and colour e) Would this menu have a high social status and why? Breakfast: Kiwi and banana smoothie/Espresso Coffee Lunch: Grilled chicken breast served with ciabatta, broccoli and squash/ espresso coffee Dinner: Roast beef with Dijon mustard served with baked potato, cabbage, carrot and raisin salads. See page 4

Question 2 Do you think that a kilojoule counting is a sound nutritional practice? Give reasons for your answer. Yes, I do believe that kilojoules counting is a sound nutritional practice. So far studies highlighted in “The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction” by Walford and Weindruch indicate that restricting the calorie intake of laboratory mice proportionally increased their life span compared to a group of mice with a normal diet. In humans numerous benefits have been outlined, amongst them: Reduced cardiovascular risks Improved memory Longer life span On the other hand, the effect kilojoules counting diets on people who want to lose weight is controversial. Although calorie restriction may provide quick weight loss, several studies have shown that the body adjusts to the new diet in more or less half a year.Researchers argue that people who have little body fat should not use this method of losing weight but rather should exercise more because calorie restriction in this case can be harmful. The reason for this is that after the body's fat reserves have been burned for energy, the proteins within muscle tissue will be consumed. In severe cases where individuals do not acknowledge the dangers they are exposing themselves to, they may suffer serious loss of the muscle mass. With above in mind I still opt to think that a kilojoule counting is a sound nutritional practice as it advocates balance above all else in my opinion. Question 3 Discuss in detail the digestion process when you eat a piece of roast beef. Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream. The whole digestive system is around 9 meters long. In a healthy human adult this process can take between 24 and 72 hours. Let us consider the digestion process of a piece of roast beef

Fig 1 Source Google

There are three phases of gastric digestion which we will discuss below using figure 1 Cephalic phase - This phase occurs before food enters the stomach and involves preparation of the body for eating and digestion. Sight and thought stimulate the cortex. Gastric phase - This phase takes 3 to 4 hours. It is stimulated by distension of the stomach, presence of food in stomach and decrease in pH. Distention activates long and myentric reflexes. This activates the release of acetylcholine which stimulates the release of more gastric juices. As protein enters the stomach, it binds to hydrogen ions, which raises the pH of the stomach. Inhibition of gastrin and gastric acid secretion is lifted. This triggers G cells to release gastrin, which in turn stimulates parietal cells to secrete gastric acid. Gastric acid is about 0.5% hydrochloric acid (HCl), which lowers the pH to the desired pH of 1-3. Acid release is also triggered by acetylcholine and histamine. Intestinal phase - This phase has 2 parts, the excitatory and the inhibitory. Partially digested food fills the duodenum. This triggers intestinal gastrin to be released. Enterogastric reflex inhibits vagal nuclei, activating sympathetic fibers causing the pyloric sphincter to tighten to prevent more food from entering, and inhibits local reflexes.

Question 4 List three ways in which vitamin loss can be minimized In my opinion vitamin loss...
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